Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration No. 333-231397

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated August 1, 2019)

 

Aethlon Medical, Inc.

 

$1,250,000

 

Common Stock
 

We have entered into a sales agreement on June 28, 2016, as amended by Amendment No. 1 to Common Stock Sales Agreement, dated as of August 5, 2019 with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, or H.C. Wainwright, relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Under the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $1,250,000 from time to time at prevailing market prices through H.C. Wainwright as our sales agent.

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AEMD.” On August 15, 2019, the last reported sale price for our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $0.26 per share.

 

H.C. Wainwright, as our sales agent, may sell our common stock under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, in sales deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). H.C. Wainwright will act as sales agent on a commercially reasonable efforts basis consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

H.C. Wainwright will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate equal to three percent (3.0%) of the gross proceeds per share sold, plus other fees and expenses. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, H.C. Wainwright will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of H.C. Wainwright will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

 

Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell our common stock in a public primary offering with a value exceeding more than one-third of our public float in any 12-month period so long as our public float remains below $75,000,000. Calculated in accordance with General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, as of July 1, 2019, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates, or the public float, was approximately $8,409,684 based upon 19,112,919 shares of our outstanding stock held by non-affiliates at the per share price of $0.44, the closing sale price of our common stock on July 1, 2019. One-third of our public float, calculated in accordance with General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 as of July 1, 2019, is equal to approximately $2,803,228. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we have offered an aggregate market value of $1,332,634 of securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3 during the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on, and includes, the date of this prospectus.

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. YOU SHOULD REVIEW CAREFULLY THE RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES DESCRIBED UNDER THE HEADING “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE S-6 OF THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND UNDER SIMILAR HEADINGS IN THE OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

  

H.C. Wainwright & Co.

 

Prospectus Supplement dated August 20, 2019.

 

 

 

   
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
About this Prospectus Supplement S-1
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements S-1
Prospectus Supplement Summary S-3
The Offering S-5
Risk Factors S-6
Use of Proceeds S-8
Dilution S-8
Plan of Distribution S-9
Legal Matters S-9
Experts S-9
Interests of Experts S-10
Where You Can Find More Information S-10
Information Incorporated by Reference S-10
   

 

  Page
PROSPECTUS
About this Prospectus ii
Summary 1
Risk Factors 4
Use of Proceeds 26
Dilution 27
Description of Capital Stock 28
Description of Debt Securities 31
Description of Warrants 38
Legal Ownership of Securities 40
Plan of Distribution 43
Legal Matters 46
Experts 46
Interests of Experts 46
Where You Can Find More Information 46
Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference 47
Disclosure of Commission’s Position on Indemnification for Securities Act Liability 47

 

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We have not, and the sales agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the sales agent is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in their entirety before making an investment decision. You also should read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Information Incorporated by Reference” and the sections of the accompanying prospectus entitled “Information Incorporated by Reference” and “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

 

 

 i 
 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus form a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) utilizing a “shelf” registration process. This document contains two parts. The first part consists of this prospectus supplement, which provides you with specific information about this offering. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, provides more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer only to the “prospectus,” we are referring to both parts combined. This prospectus supplement may add to, update or change information contained in the accompanying prospectus. To the extent that any statement we make in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with statements made in the accompanying prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, the statements made in this prospectus supplement will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in the accompanying prospectus and such documents incorporated by reference herein and therein.

 

For investors outside the United States, we have not done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.

 

As permitted by the rules and regulations of the Commission, the registration statement, of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus form a part, includes additional information not contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. You may read the registration statement and the other reports we file with the Commission at the Commission’s web site or at the Commission’s offices described below under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

 

Unless the context requires otherwise or unless otherwise noted, all references to “Aethlon” are to Aethlon Medical, Inc., a Nevada corporation, and all references to “we,” “us” or “our” are to Aethlon Medical, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

 

Trademarks, service marks or trade names of any other companies appearing in this prospectus supplement are the property of their respective owners. Use or display by us of trademarks, service marks or trade names owned by others is not intended to and does not imply a relationship between us and, or endorsement or sponsorship by, the owners of the trademarks, service marks or trade names.

 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Information

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, in particular the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated herein by reference, contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements represent our expectations, beliefs, intentions or strategies concerning future events, including, but not limited to, any statements regarding our assumptions about financial performance; the continuation of historical trends; the sufficiency of our cash balances for future liquidity and capital resource needs; the expected impact of changes in accounting policies on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows; anticipated problems and our plans for future operations; and the economy in general or the future of the medical device industry, all of which are subject to various risks and uncertainties.

 

 

 

 

 S-1 
 

 

Some of the statements in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, in particular the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated herein by reference, contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These statements are based on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about our business and our industry and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our company’s or our industry’s results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied in, or contemplated by, the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

  Our ability to maintain our listing on the Nasdaq Stock Market;
  the initiation, progress, timing, costs and results of preclinical studies and any clinical trials for our Hemopurifier and any other product candidates;
  our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
  our ability to further improve our process development capabilities and viral vector technology;
  the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;
  our plans to explore potential applications of our gene therapy platform in other indications in ophthalmology and rare diseases;
  our expectations regarding the clinical effectiveness and safety and tolerability of our product candidates;
  our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;
  the pricing and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;
  our expectation regarding the potential market sizes for our product candidates;
  our intellectual property position;
  the potential benefits of our strategic collaborations, our plans with respect to our strategic collaborations and our plans with respect to and our ability to enter into strategic arrangements;
  developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;
  our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act; and
  the safety, efficacy and projected development timeline and commercial potential of any product candidates.

 

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail many of these risks under the heading “Risk Factors” contained, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.

 

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus supplement, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements. 

 

 

 S-2 
 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

The following summary highlights some of the information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference herein or therein. Because this is only a summary, however, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. You should carefully read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference, which are described under “Information Incorporated by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and under “Information Incorporated by Reference” and “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus. You also should carefully consider the matters discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in the accompanying prospectus and in other periodic reports incorporated herein by reference.

 

Company Overview

 

Aethlon Medical, Inc. is a medical technology company focused on addressing unmet needs in global health and biodefense. The Aethlon Hemopurifier® is a clinical-stage immunotherapeutic device designed to combat cancer and life-threatening viral infections. In cancer, the Hemopurifier depletes the presence of circulating tumor-derived exosomes that promote immune suppression, seed the spread of metastasis and inhibit the benefit of leading cancer therapies. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) has designated the Hemopurifier as a “Breakthrough Device” related to the following two indications:

 

·the treatment of life-threatening viruses that are not addressed with approved therapies; and
·the treatment of individuals with advanced or metastatic cancer who are either unresponsive to or intolerant of standard of care therapy, and with cancer types in which exosomes have been shown to participate in the development or severity of the disease.

 

We believe the Hemopurifier can be a substantial advance in the treatment of patients with advanced and metastatic cancer through the clearance of exosomes that promote the growth and spread of tumors through multiple mechanisms. We are currently preparing for the initiation of clinical trials in patients with advanced and metastatic cancers. We are initially focused on the treatment of solid tumors, including head and neck cancer, gastrointestinal cancers and other cancers. We are in active communication with FDA in preparation for the initiation of an early clinical trial in one of these areas.

 

We believe the Hemopurifier can be a part of the broad-spectrum treatment of life-threatening highly glycosylated viruses that are not addressed with an already approved treatment countermeasure objective set forth by the U.S. Government to protect citizens from bioterror and pandemic threats. In small-scale or early feasibility human studies, the Hemopurifier has been administered to individuals infected with HIV, hepatitis-C, and Ebola. Additionally, the Hemopurifier has been validated to capture Zika virus, Lassa virus, MERS-CoV, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Herpes simplex virus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, smallpox-related viruses, H1N1 swine flu virus, H5N1 bird flu virus, and the reconstructed Spanish flu virus of 1918. In several cases, these validations were conducted in collaboration with leading government or non-government research institutes. Domestically, we are focused on the clinical advancement of the Hemopurifier through investigational device exemptions (“IDEs”) approved by the FDA. We recently concluded a feasibility study to demonstrate the safety of our device in health-compromised individuals infected with a viral pathogen.

 

We are also the majority owner of Exosome Sciences, Inc. (“ESI”), a company focused on the discovery of exosomal biomarkers to diagnose and monitor life-threatening diseases. Included among ESI’s endeavors is the advancement of a TauSomeTM biomarker candidate to diagnose chronic traumatic encephalopathy (“CTE”) in the living. ESI previously documented TauSome levels in former NFL players to be nine times higher than same age-group control subjects.

 

Successful outcomes of human trials will also be required by the regulatory agencies of certain foreign countries where we plan to sell the Hemopurifier. Some of our patents may expire before FDA approval or approval in a foreign country, if any, is obtained. However, we believe that certain patent applications and/or other patents issued more recently will help protect the proprietary nature of the Hemopurifier treatment technology.

 

Risks Associated with our Business

 

We have never been profitable. We have generated revenues during the fiscal years ended March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2018, in the amounts of $229,625, and $149,625, respectively, primarily from our contracts with the NIH. Our revenues, from research grants, continue to be insufficient to cover our cost of operations. We cannot be assured when, if at all, we will be able to enter into future government contracts beyond our current contract with the NIH. Future profitability, if any, will require the successful commercialization of our Hemopurifier technology, other products that may emerge from our potential diagnostic products or from additional government contract or grant income. We may not be able to successfully commercialize one or more of our products, and even if commercialization is successful, we may never be profitable. These risks and others are discussed more fully in the section of the accompanying prospectus entitled “Risk Factors” immediately following the prospectus summary. You should read these risks before you invest in our securities.

 

 

 

 S-3 
 

 

Corporate Information

 

On March 10, 1999, Aethlon, Inc., a California corporation, Hemex, Inc., a Delaware corporation and the accounting predecessor to Aethlon, Inc., and Bishop Equities, Inc., a publicly traded Nevada corporation, completed an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization structured to result in Bishop Equities, Inc.’s acquisition of all of the outstanding common shares of Aethlon, Inc. and Hemex, Inc. Under the plan’s terms, Bishop Equities, Inc. issued shares of its common stock to the stockholders of Aethlon, Inc. and Hemex, Inc. such that Bishop Equities, Inc. then owned 100% of each company. Upon completion of the transaction, Bishop Equities, Inc. was renamed Aethlon Medical, Inc. In 2009, we formed Exosome, which today is a majority-owned subsidiary focused on identifying and monitoring neurological conditions and cancer. We commenced formal operations of Exosome in 2013.

 

Our Contact Information

 

Our executive offices are located at 9635 Granite Ridge Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, California 92123. Our telephone number is (858) 459-7800. Our website address is www.aethlonmedical.com. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus and should not be considered to be a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Our internet address is included in this prospectus as an inactive textual reference only.

 

 

 

 

 

 S-4 
 

 

THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us   Shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $1,250,000.
     
Manner of offering   “At the market offering” in which sales may be made from time to time at prevailing market prices through our sales agent, H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-9 of this prospectus supplement.
     
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering   Up to 23,911,262 shares, assuming a sales price of $0.26 per share, which was the closing price on the Nasdaq Capital Market on August 15, 2019. Actual number of shares issued and outstanding will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
     
Use of proceeds   We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement.
     
Nasdaq Capital Market symbol   “AEMD”
     
Risk factors   This investment involves a high degree of risk. See the information set forth in “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and in the underlying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the underlying prospectus.

 

The above discussion and table are based on 19,103,570 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2019 and excludes the following, as of that date:

 

·886,672 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options under our stock incentive plans at a weighted average exercise price of $3.79 per share;
·5,051,974 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under outstanding warrants with a weighted average exercise price of $2.46 per share;
·1,329,330 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under outstanding convertible notes, including accrued interest through June 30, 2019, with a fixed conversion price of $0.68 per share;
·266,783 additional shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock incentive plans.

 

 

 S-5 
 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described below and discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as the risks, uncertainties and additional information set forth in our Commission reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K and in other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. The risks described in such documents are not intended to be an all-inclusive list of the potential risks relating to an investment in our securities. Any of such risk factors could significantly and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known or that are currently considered to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business. As a result, the trading price or value of our securities could be materially adversely affected and you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to This Offering

 

We may experience volatility in our stock price, which could negatively affect your investment, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the offering price.

 

The offering price of our common stock may vary from the market price of our common stock after the offering. If you purchase shares of common stock, you may not be able to resell those shares at or above your purchase price. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including: a quarterly variations in operating results; changes in financial estimates by securities analysts; changes in market valuations of other similar companies; announcements by us or our competitors of new products or of significant technical innovations, contracts, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures; additions or departures of key personnel; any deviations in net sales or in losses from levels expected by securities analysts; and future sales of common stock. In addition, the stock market has recently experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may cause our stock price to fall regardless of our performance.

 

Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market could result in a de-listing of our common stock.

 

If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market, or Nasdaq, such as the minimum stockholders’ equity requirement or the minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq may take steps to de-list our common stock. In May 2019, we received a letter from Nasdaq indicating that Nasdaq has determined that we have failed to comply with the minimum bid price requirement of Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2). Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) requires that companies listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market maintain a minimum closing bid price of at least $1.00 per share. In July 2019, we received another letter from Nasdaq indicating that Nasdaq has determined that we have failed to comply with the minimum stockholder’s equity requirement of Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1). Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1) requires that companies listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market maintain a minimum of $2,500,000 in stockholder’s equity. If we fail to regain and maintain compliance with these, or any other of the continued listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market, Nasdaq may take steps to de-list our common stock. Such a de-listing would likely have a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our common stock when you wish to do so. In the event of a de-listing, we would take actions to restore our compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements, but any such action taken by us may not be successful.

 

Management will have broad discretion as to the use of the proceeds from this offering and may not use the proceeds effectively.

 

Because we have not designated the amount of net proceeds from this offering to be used for any particular purpose, our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds from this offering, as described below in “Use of Proceeds,” and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of the offering. Our management may use the net proceeds for corporate purposes that may not improve our financial condition or market value of our common stock.

 

Future sales of substantial amounts of our common stock, or the possibility that such sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

 

We may issue up to $1,250,000 in aggregate offering price of shares of common stock from time to time in this offering. The issuance from time to time of shares in this offering, as well as our ability to issue such shares in this offering, could have the effect of depressing the market price or increasing the market price volatility of our common stock.

 

 

 

 

 S-6 
 

 

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the book value per share of the common stock you purchase in this offering.

 

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 4,807,692 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $0.26 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq on August 15, 2019 for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $1,250,000, and after deducting estimated commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $0.17 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2019 after giving effect to this offering at the assumed size and offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options or the issuance of shares of our common stock upon settlement of outstanding restricted stock units may result in further dilution of your investment. See the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Dilution” for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you could incur if you participate in this offering.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

 

 

 

 

 S-7 
 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We estimate that the net proceeds that we will receive from this offering will be approximately $1,200,000, after commissions and estimated expenses payable by us, assuming the sale of an aggregate of $1,250,000 of our common stock pursuant to this offering, which is the maximum dollar amount of gross proceeds for which we may offer our common stock under this prospectus supplement.

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including for research and development, sales and marketing initiatives and general administrative expenses, working capital and capital expenditures. In addition, our use of proceeds may include the repayment of debt or refinancing of indebtedness or the acquisition of complementary products or companies.

 

We have not determined the amount of net proceeds from this offering that we will use specifically for the foregoing purposes. Pending use of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

DILUTION

 

If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will experience dilution to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019 was approximately $1.0 million, or approximately $0.05 per share. Net tangible book value per share represents our total tangible assets less total tangible liabilities, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2019.

 

After giving effect to the assumed sale by us of $1,250,000 of our common stock in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $0.26 per share of our common stock (the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on August 15, 2019), and after deducting the estimated fees and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019 would have been approximately $2.2 million or approximately $0.09 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $0.04 per share to existing shareholders and an immediate dilution of approximately $0.17 per share to new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Assumed public offering price per share       $0.26 
           
Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2019  $0.05      
           
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors  $0.04      
           
As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2019, after giving effect to this offering       $0.09 
           
Dilution per share to new investors in the offering       $0.17 

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 4,807,692 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $0.26 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on August 15, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $1,250,000. The shares, if any, sold in this offering will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $1.26 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $1,250,000 is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering to $0.11 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $1.15 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us.  

 

The above discussion and table are based on 19,103,570 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2019 and excludes the following, as of that date:

 

·886,672 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options under our stock incentive plans at a weighted average exercise price of $3.79 per share;
·5,051,974 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under outstanding warrants with a weighted average exercise price of $2.46 per share;
·1,329,330 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under outstanding convertible notes, including accrued interest through June 30, 2019, with a fixed conversion price of $0.68 per share;
·266,783 additional shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock incentive plans.

 

 

 S-8 
 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into a sales agreement with H.C. Wainwright, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $1,250,000 of our common stock through H.C. Wainwright as our sales agent. Upon our delivery of a placement notice to H.C. Wainwright pursuant to the sales agreement and subject to the terms of the sales agreement, H.C. Wainwright may sell our common stock by any method in sales deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act.

 

H.C. Wainwright will offer our common stock at prevailing market prices subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement as agreed upon by us and H.C. Wainwright. We will designate the number of shares which we desire to sell, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, H.C. Wainwright will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. Either H.C. Wainwright or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party.

 

Under the terms of the sales agreement, we may also sell our common stock to H.C. Wainwright, as principal for their own account, at a price negotiated at the time of sale.

 

We will pay commissions to H.C. Wainwright for their services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock at a commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross sale price per share sold, plus other fees and expenses.

 

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on another date that is agreed upon by us and H.C. Wainwright in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, H.C. Wainwright will be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to H.C. Wainwright against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

  

This offering will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the issuance and sale of all shares of our common stock covered by this prospectus supplement and (2) the termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein.

 

H.C. Wainwright and each of its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, H.C. Wainwright will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement. This summary of the material provisions of the sales agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the shares of Common Stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the offering and the enforceability of debt securities or warrants offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon by Cooley LLP. Duane Morris LLP is counsel for H.C. Wainwright in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Aethlon Medical, Inc. as of March 31, 2019 and 2018 and for each of the years in the two-year period ended March 31, 2019 incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference from the Aethlon Medical, Inc. Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2019 have been audited by Squar Milner LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report thereon, incorporated herein by reference, and have been incorporated in this prospectus supplement and Registration Statement in reliance upon such report and upon the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

 

 S-9 
 

 

INTERESTS OF EXPERTS

 

No expert or counsel named in this prospectus supplement as having prepared or certified any part of this prospectus supplement or having given an opinion upon the validity of the securities being registered or upon other legal matters in connection with the registration or offering of the common stock was employed on a contingency basis, or had, or is to receive, in connection with the offering, a substantial interest, direct or indirect, in the registrant, nor was any such person connected with the registrant as a promoter, managing or principal underwriter, voting trustee, director, officer or employee.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the shares of common stock we are offering under this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus supplement, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy the registration statement, as well as any other material we file with the SEC, at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1.800.SEC.0330 for more information on the Public Reference Room. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Aethlon. The SEC’s Internet site can be found at www.sec.gov.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement. Information in this prospectus supplement supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus supplement. We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement the documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC (other than Current Reports or portions thereof furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the effectiveness of the registration statement but prior to the termination of the offering of the common stock covered by this prospectus supplement:

 

·Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, which was filed with the SEC on July 1, 2019;
·our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, which was filed on February 22, 2019;
·our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2019, which was filed with the SEC on August 14, 2019;
·our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on July 11, 2019 and August 12, 2019; and
·The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the Commission on July 8, 2015, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement but not delivered with the prospectus supplement, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at Aethlon Medical, Inc., 9635 Granite Ridge Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, California 92123, (858) 459-7800.

 

You should rely only on the information provided in and incorporated by reference into this or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this or any prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front cover of these documents.

 

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement. 

 

 

 

 S-10 
 

  

PROSPECTUS

 

Aethlon Medical, Inc.

 

$4,700,000

 

Common Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants

 

From time to time, we may offer up to $4,700,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus.

 

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, before you invest in any securities. This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless accompanied by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol "AEMD." On July 9, 2019, the last reported sale price for our common stock was $0.37 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.

 

As of July 9, 2019, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $7.1 million, based on 19,673,576 shares of outstanding common stock, of which approximately 19.1 million shares were held by non-affiliates, and a price of $0.37 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on July 9, 2019. As of the date of this prospectus, we have offered an aggregate market value of $1,332,634 of securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3 during the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on, and includes, the date of this prospectus.

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. YOU SHOULD REVIEW CAREFULLY THE RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES DESCRIBED UNDER THE HEADING "RISK FACTORS" ON PAGE 4 AND CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND ANY RELATED FREE WRITING PROSPECTUS AND UNDER SIMILAR HEADINGS IN THE OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

 

We will sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled "Plan of Distribution" in this prospectus. If any underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters and any applicable commissions or discounts will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is August 1, 2019.

 

 

 

   

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

   
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS ii
SUMMARY 1
RISK FACTORS 4
USE OF PROCEEDS 26
DILUTION 27
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 28
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 31
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 38
LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES 40
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 43
LEGAL MATTERS 46
EXPERTS 46
INTERESTS OF EXPERTS 46
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 46
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE 47
DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION’S POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY 47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 i 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this prospectus, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $4,700,000.

 

Each time we sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities offered.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectus we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. We are not making an offer to sell or seeking an offer to buy securities under this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

The information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of their respective dates, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

For investors outside the United States, we have not done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.

 

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, industry, statistical and market data from our own internal estimates and research as well as from industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Industry publications, studies and surveys generally state that they have been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. While we believe that each of these studies and publications is reliable, we have not independently verified statistical, market and industry data from third-party sources. While we believe our internal company research is reliable and the market definitions are appropriate, neither such research nor these definitions have been verified by any independent source.

 

Unless the context requires otherwise or unless otherwise noted, all references to "Aethlon" are to Aethlon Medical, Inc., a Nevada corporation, and all references to "we," "us" or "our" are to Aethlon Medical, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

 

Trademarks, service marks or trade names of any other companies appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Use or display by us of trademarks, service marks or trade names owned by others is not intended to and does not imply a relationship between us and, or endorsement or sponsorship by, the owners of the trademarks, service marks or trade names.

 

 

 

 ii 

 

 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Information

 

This prospectus, in particular the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated herein by reference, contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements represent our expectations, beliefs, intentions or strategies concerning future events, including, but not limited to, any statements regarding our assumptions about financial performance; the continuation of historical trends; the sufficiency of our cash balances for future liquidity and capital resource needs; the expected impact of changes in accounting policies on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows; anticipated problems and our plans for future operations; and the economy in general or the future of the medical device industry, all of which are subject to various risks and uncertainties.

 

Some of the statements in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, in particular the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated herein by reference, contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These statements are based on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about our business and our industry and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our company’s or our industry’s results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied in, or contemplated by, the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

·   the initiation, progress, timing, costs and results of preclinical studies and any clinical trials for our Hemopurifier and any other product candidates;
·   our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
·   our ability to further improve our process development capabilities and viral vector technology;
·   the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;
·   our plans to explore potential applications of our gene therapy platform in other indications in ophthalmology and rare diseases;
·   our expectations regarding the clinical effectiveness and safety and tolerability of our product candidates;
·   our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;
·   the pricing and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;
·   our expectation regarding the potential market sizes for our product candidates;
·   our intellectual property position;
·   the potential benefits of our strategic collaborations, our plans with respect to our strategic collaborations and our plans with respect to and our ability to enter into strategic arrangements;
·   developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;
·   our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act; and
·   the safety, efficacy and projected development timeline and commercial potential of any product candidates.

 

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail many of these risks under the heading “Risk Factors” contained, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.

 

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

 

 

 iii 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

Company Overview

 

Aethlon Medical, Inc. is a medical technology company focused on addressing unmet needs in global health and biodefense. The Aethlon Hemopurifier® is a clinical-stage immunotherapeutic device designed to combat cancer and life-threatening viral infections. In cancer, the Hemopurifier depletes the presence of circulating tumor-derived exosomes that promote immune suppression, seed the spread of metastasis and inhibit the benefit of leading cancer therapies. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) has designated the Hemopurifier as a "Breakthrough Device" related to the following two indications:

 

·the treatment of life-threatening viruses that are not addressed with approved therapies; and
·the treatment of individuals with advanced or metastatic cancer who are either unresponsive to or intolerant of standard of care therapy, and with cancer types in which exosomes have been shown to participate in the development or severity of the disease.

 

We believe the Hemopurifier can be a part of the broad-spectrum treatment of life-threatening highly glycosylated viruses that are not addressed with an already approved treatment countermeasure objective set forth by the U.S. Government to protect citizens from bioterror and pandemic threats. In small-scale or early feasibility human studies, the Hemopurifier has been administered to individuals infected with HIV, hepatitis-C, and Ebola. Additionally, the Hemopurifier has been validated to capture Zika virus, Lassa virus, MERS-CoV, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Herpes simplex virus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, smallpox-related viruses, H1N1 swine flu virus, H5N1 bird flu virus, and the reconstructed Spanish flu virus of 1918. In several cases, these validations were conducted in collaboration with leading government or non-government research institutes. Domestically, we are focused on the clinical advancement of the Hemopurifier through investigational device exemptions (“IDEs”) approved by the FDA. We recently concluded a feasibility study to demonstrate the safety of our device in health-compromised individuals infected with a viral pathogen.

 

We are also the majority owner of Exosome Sciences, Inc. (“ESI”), a company focused on the discovery of exosomal biomarkers to diagnose and monitor life-threatening diseases. Included among ESI’s endeavors is the advancement of a TauSomeTM biomarker candidate to diagnose chronic traumatic encephalopathy (“CTE”) in the living. ESI previously documented TauSome levels in former NFL players to be nine times higher than same age-group control subjects.

 

Successful outcomes of human trials will also be required by the regulatory agencies of certain foreign countries where we intend to sell the Hemopurifier. Some of our patents may expire before FDA approval or approval in a foreign country, if any, is obtained. However, we believe that certain patent applications and/or other patents issued more recently will help protect the proprietary nature of the Hemopurifier treatment technology.

 

Corporate Information

 

On March 10, 1999, Aethlon, Inc., a California corporation, Hemex, Inc., a Delaware corporation and the accounting predecessor to Aethlon, Inc., and Bishop Equities, Inc., a publicly traded Nevada corporation, completed an Agreement and Plan of Reorganization structured to result in Bishop Equities, Inc.'s acquisition of all of the outstanding common shares of Aethlon, Inc. and Hemex, Inc. Under the plan's terms, Bishop Equities, Inc. issued shares of its common stock to the stockholders of Aethlon, Inc. and Hemex, Inc. such that Bishop Equities, Inc. then owned 100% of each company. Upon completion of the transaction, Bishop Equities, Inc. was renamed Aethlon Medical, Inc. In 2009, we formed Exosome, which today is a majority-owned subsidiary focused on identifying and monitoring neurological conditions and cancer. We commenced formal operations of Exosome in 2013.

 

 

 

 

 1 

 

 

 

Our Contact Information

 

Our executive offices are located at 9635 Granite Ridge Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, California 92123. Our telephone number is (858) 459-7800. Our website address is www.aethlonmedical.com. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and should not be considered to be a part of this prospectus. Our internet address is included in this prospectus as an inactive textual reference only.

 

The Securities We May Offer

 

With this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and related free writing prospectus, we may offer common stock, debt securities and warrants, or any combination of the foregoing. The aggregate initial offering price of all securities we sell in the primary offering under this prospectus will not exceed $4,700,000. If we issue debt securities at a discount from their original stated principal amount, then, for purposes of calculating the total dollar amount of all securities issued under this prospectus, we will treat the initial offering price of the debt securities as the total original principal amount of the debt securities. Each time we offer securities with this prospectus, we will provide offerees with a prospectus supplement that will contain the specific terms of the securities being offered. The following is a summary of the securities we may offer with this prospectus.

 

We may sell the securities to or through underwriters, dealers or agents or directly to purchasers. We, as well as any agents acting on our behalf, reserve the sole right to accept and to reject in whole or in part any proposed purchase of securities. Each prospectus supplement will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers or agents involved in the sale of securities described in that prospectus supplement and any applicable fee, commission or discount arrangements with them.

 

The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Common Stock. We may offer shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, either alone or underlying other registered securities convertible into or exercisable for our common stock. Holders of our common stock are entitled to such dividends as our Board of Directors may declare from time to time out of legally available funds. Currently, we do not pay any dividends. Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote per share. In this prospectus, we provide a general description of, among other things, our dividend policy and the rights and restrictions that apply to holders of our common stock.

 

Debt Securities. We may offer general debt obligations, which may be secured or unsecured, senior or subordinated and convertible into shares of our common stock. In this prospectus, we refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities together as the "debt securities." We may issue debt securities under a note purchase agreement or under an indenture to be entered between us and a trustee. If we issue debt securities under an indenture, a form of the indenture will be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will be incorporated by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the Commission. The senior debt securities will have the same rank as all of our other indebtedness that is not subordinated. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to our senior debt on terms set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, the subordinated debt securities will be effectively subordinated to creditors of our subsidiaries. Our Board of Directors will determine the terms of each series of debt securities being offered.

 

This prospectus contains only general terms and provisions of the debt securities. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the particular terms of the debt securities offered thereby. We urge you to read the prospectus supplements and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. Although the forms of indentures may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement to which this prospectus is a part, supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of debt securities being offered will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part in reports we file with the Commission.

 

 

 

 

 

 2 

 

 

 

Warrants. We may offer warrants for the purchase of debt securities or shares of common stock. We may issue the warrants by themselves or together with debt securities or common stock, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of securities warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. Our Board of Directors will determine the terms of the warrants. This prospectus contains only general terms and provisions of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the particular terms of the warrants being offered thereby. We urge you to read the prospectus supplements and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 3 

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Selected Risks Associated with an Investment in Our Securities

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below as well as the other information in this prospectus before deciding to invest in or maintain your investment in our company. The risks described below are not intended to be an all-inclusive list of all of the potential risks relating to an investment in our securities. Any of the risk factors described below could significantly and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known or that are currently considered to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business. As a result, the trading price or value of our securities could be materially adversely affected and you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Relating to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

 

We have incurred significant losses and expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future.

  

We have never been profitable. We have generated revenues during the fiscal years ended March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2018, in the amounts of $229,625, and $149,625, respectively, primarily from our contracts with the NIH. Our revenues, from research grants, continue to be insufficient to cover our cost of operations. We cannot be assured when, if at all, we will be able to enter into future government contracts beyond our current contract with the NIH. Future profitability, if any, will require the successful commercialization of our Hemopurifier technology, other products that may emerge from our potential diagnostic products or from additional government contract or grant income. We may not be able to successfully commercialize one or more of our products, and even if commercialization is successful, we may never be profitable.

 

We will require additional financing to sustain our operations.

 

We will require significant additional financing for our operations and for expected additional future clinical trials in the U.S., as well as to fund all of our continued research and development activities for the Hemopurifier and other future products. In addition, as we expand our activities, our overhead costs to support personnel, laboratory materials and infrastructure will increase. If the financing we may require to sustain our working capital needs be unavailable to us on reasonable terms, or at all, we may be unable to support our research and FDA clearance activities, including our planned clinical trials. The failure to implement our research and clearance activities would have a material adverse effect on our ability to commercialize our products or continue our business.

 

We also will need to raise additional funds through debt or equity financings to achieve our business objectives and to satisfy our cash obligations, which may dilute the ownership of our existing stockholders.

 

We will need to raise additional funds through debt and/or equity financings in order to complete our ultimate business objectives, including funding working capital to support development and regulatory clearance of our products. We also may choose to raise additional funds in debt or equity financings if they are available to us on reasonable terms to increase our working capital and to strengthen our financial position. Any sales of additional equity or convertible debt securities could result in dilution of the equity interests of our existing stockholders, which could be substantial. Also, new investors may require that we and certain of our stockholders enter into voting arrangements that give them additional voting control or representation on our Board of Directors.

 

 

 

 4 

 

 

Risks Related to Our Business Operations

 

We face intense competition in the medical device industry.

 

We compete with numerous U.S. and foreign companies in the medical device industry, and many of our competitors have greater financial, personnel, operational and research and development resources than we do. Our competitors are developing vaccine candidates, which could compete with the Hemopurifier medical device we are developing. Our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and market products for any of the diseases we target that:

 

·are more effective;
·have fewer or less severe adverse side effects;
·are better tolerated;
·are more adaptable to various modes of dosing;
·are easier to administer; or
·are less expensive than the products or product candidates we are developing.

  

Even if we are successful in developing the Hemopurifier and potential diagnostic products, and obtain FDA and other regulatory approvals necessary for commercializing them, our products may not compete effectively with other successful products. Researchers are continually learning more about diseases, which may lead to new technologies for treatment. Our competitors may succeed in developing and marketing products that are either more effective than those that we may develop, alone or with our collaborators, or that are marketed before any products we develop are marketed. Our competitors include fully integrated pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies as well as universities and public and private research institutions. Many of the organizations competing with us have substantially greater capital resources, larger research and development staffs and facilities, greater experience in product development and in obtaining regulatory approvals, and greater marketing capabilities than we do. If our competitors develop more effective pharmaceutical treatments for infectious disease or cancer, or bring those treatments to market before we can commercialize the Hemopurifier for such uses, we may be unable to obtain any market traction for our products, or the diseases we seek to treat may be substantially addressed by competing treatments. If we are unable to successfully compete against larger companies in the pharmaceutical industry, we may never generate significant revenue or be profitable.

  

We have limited experience in identifying and working with large-scale contracts with medical device manufacturers; manufacture of our devices must comply with good manufacturing practices in the U.S.

 

To achieve the levels of production necessary to commercialize our Hemopurifier and other future products, we will need to secure large-scale manufacturing agreements with contract manufacturers which comply with good manufacturing practice standards and other standards prescribed by various federal, state and local regulatory agencies in the U.S. and any other country of use. We have limited experience coordinating and overseeing the manufacture of medical device products on a large-scale. It is possible that manufacturing and control problems will arise as we attempt to commercialize our products and that manufacturing may not be completed in a timely manner or at a commercially reasonable cost. In addition, we may not be able to adequately finance the manufacture and distribution of our products on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we cannot successfully oversee and finance the manufacture of our products if they obtain regulatory clearances, we may never generate revenue from product sales and we may never be profitable.

 

Our Aethlon Hemopurifier technology may become obsolete.

 

Our Hemopurifier product may be made unmarketable prior to commercialization by us by new scientific or technological developments by others with new treatment modalities that are more efficacious and/or more economical than our products. The homeland security industry is growing rapidly with many competitors that are trying to develop products or vaccines to protect against infectious disease. Any one of our competitors could develop a more effective product which would render our technology obsolete. Further, our ability to achieve significant and sustained penetration of our key target markets will depend upon our success in developing or acquiring technologies developed by other companies, either independently, through joint ventures or through acquisitions. If we fail to develop or acquire, and manufacture and sell, products that satisfy our customers’ demands, or we fail to respond effectively to new product announcements by our competitors by quickly introducing competitive products, then market acceptance of our products could be reduced and our business could be adversely affected. Our products may not remain competitive with products based on new technologies.

 

 

 

 

 5 

 

 

Our success is dependent in part on our executive officers.

 

Our success depends to a critical extent on the continued services of our Interim Chief Executive Officer, Timothy Rodell, MD, and our Chief Financial Officer, James B. Frakes. If one or both of these key executive officers were to leave us, we would be forced to expend significant time and money in the pursuit of a replacement, which would result in both a delay in the implementation of our business plan and the diversion of limited working capital. The unique knowledge and expertise of these individuals would be difficult to replace within the biotechnology field. We do not currently carry key man life insurance policies on any of our key executive officers which would assist us in recouping our costs in the event of the loss of those officers. If either of our key officers were to leave us, it could make it impossible, if not cause substantial delays and costs, to implement our long-term business objectives and growth.

 

Our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could impede our ability to achieve our business objectives.

 

We have six full-time employees, consisting of our Interim Chief Executive Officer, our Chief Financial Officer, two research scientists and an executive assistant. We utilize, whenever appropriate, consultants in order to conserve cash and resources. 

 

Although we believe that these employees and consultants will be able to handle most of our additional administrative, research and development and business development in the near term, we will nevertheless be required over the longer-term to hire highly skilled managerial, scientific and administrative personnel to fully implement our business plan and growth strategies, including to mitigate the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting described above. Due to the specialized scientific nature of our business, we are highly dependent upon our ability to attract and retain qualified scientific, technical and managerial personnel. Competition for these individuals, especially in San Diego, California, where many biotechnology companies are located, is intense and we may not be able to attract, assimilate or retain additional highly qualified personnel in the future. We may not be able to engage the services of qualified personnel at competitive prices or at all, particularly given the risks of employment attributable to our limited financial resources and lack of an established track record. Also, if we are required to attract personnel from other parts of the U.S. or abroad, we may have significant difficulty doing so due to the high cost of living in the Southern California area and due to the costs incurred with transferring personnel to the area. If we cannot attract and retain qualified staff and executives, we will be unable to develop our products and achieve regulatory clearance, and our business could fail.

 

We plan to grow rapidly which will strain our resources; our inability to manage our growth could delay or derail implementation of our business objectives.

 

We will need to significantly expand our operations to implement our longer-term business plan and growth strategies. We will also be required to manage multiple relationships with various strategic partners, technology licensors, customers, manufacturers and suppliers, consultants and other third parties. This expansion and these expanded relationships will require us to significantly improve or replace our existing managerial, operational and financial systems, procedures and controls; to improve the coordination between our various corporate functions; and to manage, train, motivate and maintain a growing employee base. The time and costs to effectuate these steps may place a significant strain on our management personnel, systems and resources, particularly given the limited amount of financial resources and skilled employees that may be available at the time. We cannot assure you that we will institute, in a timely manner or at all, the improvements to our managerial, operational and financial systems, procedures and controls necessary to support our anticipated increased levels of operations and to coordinate our various corporate functions, or that we will be able to properly manage, train, motivate and retain our anticipated increased employee base. If we cannot manage our growth initiatives, we will be unable to commercialize our products on a large-scale in a timely manner, if at all, and our business could fail.

 

 

 

 6 

 

 

As a public company with limited financial resources undertaking the launch of new medical technologies, we may have difficulty attracting and retaining executive management and directors.

 

The directors and management of publicly traded corporations are increasingly concerned with the extent of their personal exposure to lawsuits and stockholder claims, as well as governmental and creditor claims which may be made against them, particularly in view of recent changes in securities laws imposing additional duties, obligations and liabilities on management and directors. Due to these perceived risks, directors and management are also becoming increasingly concerned with the availability of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance to pay on a timely basis the costs incurred in defending such claims. While we currently carry directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, such insurance is expensive and difficult to obtain. If we are unable to continue or provide directors’ and officers’ liability insurance at affordable rates or at all, it may become increasingly more difficult to attract and retain qualified outside directors to serve on our Board of Directors. We may lose potential independent board members and management candidates to other companies in the biotechnology field that have greater directors’ and officers’ liability insurance to insure them from liability or to biotechnology companies that have revenues or have received greater funding to date which can offer greater compensation packages. The fees of directors are also rising in response to their increased duties, obligations and liabilities. In addition, our products could potentially be harmful to users, and we are exposed to claims of product liability including for injury or death. We have limited insurance and may not be able to afford robust coverage even as our products are introduced into the market. As a company with limited resources and potential exposures to management, we will have a more difficult time attracting and retaining management and outside independent directors than a more established public or private company due to these enhanced duties, obligations and potential liabilities.

 

If we fail to comply with extensive regulations of U.S. and foreign regulatory agencies, the commercialization of our products could be delayed or prevented entirely.

 

Our Hemopurifier product is subject to extensive government regulations related to development, testing, manufacturing and commercialization in the U.S. and other countries. The determination of when and whether a product is ready for large-scale purchase and potential use will be made by the U.S. Government through consultation with a number of governmental agencies, including the FDA, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Homeland Security. Our product candidates are in the pre-clinical and clinical stages of development and have not received required regulatory approval from the FDA, or any foreign regulatory agencies, to be commercially marketed and sold. The process of obtaining and complying with FDA and other governmental regulatory approvals and regulations in the U.S. and in foreign countries is costly, time consuming, uncertain and subject to unanticipated delays. Obtaining such regulatory approvals, if any, can take several years. Despite the time and expense exerted, regulatory approval is never guaranteed. We also are subject to the following risks and obligations, among others:

 

·the FDA may refuse to approve an application if they believe that applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied;
·the FDA may require additional testing for safety and effectiveness;
·the FDA may interpret data from pre-clinical testing and clinical trials in different ways than we interpret them;
·if regulatory approval of a product is granted, the approval may be limited to specific indications or limited with respect to its distribution; and
·the FDA may change their approval policies and/or adopt new regulations.

 

Failure to comply with these or other regulatory requirements of the FDA may subject us to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including:

 

·warning letters;
·civil penalties;
·criminal penalties;
·injunctions;
·product seizure or detention;
·product recalls; and
·total or partial suspension of productions.

 

 

 

 7 

 

 

Delays in successfully completing our planned clinical trials could jeopardize our ability to obtain regulatory approval.

 

Our business prospects will depend on our ability to complete studies, clinical trials, obtain satisfactory results, obtain required regulatory approvals and successfully commercialize our Hemopurifier product candidate. Completion of our clinical trials, announcement of results of the trials and our ability to obtain regulatory approvals could be delayed for a variety of reasons, including:

 

·slow patient enrollment;
·serious adverse events related to our medical device candidates;
·unsatisfactory results of any clinical trial;
·the failure of our principal third-party investigators to perform our clinical trials on our anticipated schedules; and
·different interpretations of our pre-clinical and clinical data, which could initially lead to inconclusive results.

   

Our development costs will increase if we have material delays in any clinical trial or if we need to perform more or larger clinical trials than planned. If the delays are significant, or if any of our product candidates do not prove to be safe or effective or do not receive required regulatory approvals, our financial results and the commercial prospects for our product candidates will be harmed. Furthermore, our inability to complete our clinical trials in a timely manner could jeopardize our ability to obtain regulatory approval.

 

If we or our suppliers fail to comply with ongoing FDA or foreign regulatory authority requirements, or if we experience unanticipated problems with our products, these products could be subject to restrictions or withdrawal from the market.

 

Any product for which we obtain clearance or approval, and the manufacturing processes, reporting requirements, post-approval clinical data and promotional activities for such product, will be subject to continued regulatory review, oversight and periodic inspections by the FDA and other domestic and foreign regulatory bodies. In particular, we and our third-party suppliers may be required to comply with the FDA’s Quality System Regulation, or QSR. These FDA regulations cover the methods and documentation of the design, testing, production, control, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, sterilization, storage and shipping of our products. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements is subject to continual review and is monitored rigorously through periodic inspections by the FDA. If we, or our manufacturers, fail to adhere to QSR requirements in the U.S., this could delay production of our products and lead to fines, difficulties in obtaining regulatory clearances, recalls, enforcement actions, including injunctive relief or consent decrees, or other consequences, which could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

 

In addition, the FDA assesses compliance with the QSR through periodic announced and unannounced inspections of manufacturing and other facilities. The failure by us or one of our suppliers to comply with applicable statutes and regulations administered by the FDA, or the failure to timely and adequately respond to any adverse inspectional observations or product safety issues, could result in any of the following enforcement actions:

 

  · untitled letters, warning letters, fines, injunctions, consent decrees and civil penalties;
  · unanticipated expenditures to address or defend such actions;
  · customer notifications or repair, replacement, refunds, recall, detention or seizure of our products;
  · operating restrictions or partial suspension or total shutdown of production;
  · refusing or delaying our requests for 510(k) clearance or premarket approval of new products or modified products;
  · withdrawing 510(k) clearances or premarket approvals that have already been granted;
  · refusal to grant export approval for our products; or
  · criminal prosecution.

 

 

 

 8 

 

 

Moreover, the FDA strictly regulates the promotional claims that may be made about approved products. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. However, companies may share truthful and not misleading information that is otherwise consistent with a product’s FDA approved labeling. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties.

 

Any of these sanctions could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, our key component suppliers may not currently be or may not continue to be in compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements, which could result in our failure to produce our products on a timely basis and in the required quantities, if at all.

 

If our products, or malfunction of our products, cause or contribute to a death or a serious injury, we will be subject to medical device reporting regulations, which can result in voluntary corrective actions or agency enforcement actions.

 

Under the FDA medical device reporting regulations, medical device manufacturers are required to report to the FDA information that a device has or may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or has malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to death or serious injury if the malfunction of the device or one of our similar devices were to recur. If we fail to report these events to the FDA within the required timeframes, or at all, FDA could take enforcement action against us. Any such adverse event involving our products also could result in future voluntary corrective actions, such as recalls or customer notifications, or agency action, such as inspection or enforcement action. Any corrective action, whether voluntary or involuntary, as well as defending ourselves in a lawsuit, will require the dedication of our time and capital, distract management from operating our business, and may harm our reputation and financial results.

  

We outsource almost all of our operational and development activities, and if any party to which we have outsourced certain essential functions fails to perform its obligations under agreements with us, the development and commercialization of our lead product candidate and any future product candidates that we may develop could be delayed or terminated.

 

We generally rely on third-party consultants or other vendors to manage and implement the day-to-day conduct of our operations, including conducting clinical trials and manufacturing our current product candidates and any future product candidates that we may develop. Accordingly, we are and will continue to be dependent on the timeliness and effectiveness of their efforts. Our dependence on third parties includes key suppliers and third-party service providers supporting the development, manufacture and regulatory approval of our products as well as support for our information technology systems and other infrastructure. While our management team oversees these vendors, failure of any of these third parties to meet their contractual, regulatory and other obligations or the development of factors that materially disrupt the performance of these third parties could have a material adverse effect on our business. For example, all of the key oversight responsibilities for the development and manufacture of our lead product candidate are conducted by our management team, but all other activities are the responsibility of third-party vendors.

 

If a clinical research organization that we utilize is unable to allocate sufficient qualified personnel to our studies in a timely manner or if the work performed by it does not fully satisfy the requirements of the FDA or other regulatory agencies, we may encounter substantial delays and increased costs in completing our development efforts. Any manufacturer that we select may encounter difficulties in the manufacture of new products in commercial quantities, including problems involving product yields, product stability or shelf life, quality control, adequacy of control procedures and policies, compliance with FDA regulations and the need for further FDA approval of any new manufacturing processes and facilities. If any of these occur, the development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed, curtailed or terminated because we may not have sufficient financial resources or capabilities to continue such development and commercialization on our own. If we rely on only one source for the manufacture of the clinical or commercial supplies of any of our product candidates or products, any production problems or supply constraints with that manufacturer could adversely impact the development or commercialization of that product candidate or product.

  

 

 

 9 

 

 

If we or our contractors or service providers fail to comply with regulatory laws and regulations, we or they could be subject to regulatory actions, which could affect our ability to develop, market and sell our product candidates and any other or future product candidates that we may develop and may harm our reputation.

 

If we or our manufacturers or other third-party contractors fail to comply with applicable federal, state or foreign laws or regulations, we could be subject to regulatory actions, which could affect our ability to develop, market and sell our current product candidates or any future product candidates under development successfully and could harm our reputation and lead to reduced or non-acceptance of our proposed product candidates by the market. Even technical recommendations or evidence by the FDA through letters, site visits, and overall recommendations to academia or biotechnology companies may make the manufacturing of a clinical product extremely labor intensive or expensive, making the product candidate no longer viable to manufacture in a cost-efficient manner. The mode of administration may make the product candidate not commercially viable. The required testing of the product candidate may make that candidate no longer commercially viable. The conduct of clinical trials may be critiqued by the FDA, or a clinical trial site’s Institutional Review Board or Institutional Biosafety Committee, which may delay or make impossible clinical testing of a product candidate. The Institutional Review Board for a clinical trial may stop a trial or deem a product candidate unsafe to continue testing. This would have a material adverse effect on the value of the product candidate and our business prospects.

 

We will need to outsource and rely on third parties for the clinical development and manufacture, sales and marketing of our current product candidates or any future product candidates that we may develop, and our future success will be dependent on the timeliness and effectiveness of the efforts of these third parties.

 

We do not have the required financial and human resources to carry out on our own all the pre-clinical and clinical development for our current product candidates or any other or future product candidates that we may develop, and do not have the capability and resources to manufacture, market or sell our current product candidates or any future product candidates that we may develop. Our business model calls for the partial or full outsourcing of the clinical and other development and manufacturing, sales and marketing of our product candidates in order to reduce our capital and infrastructure costs as a means of potentially improving our financial position. Our success will depend on the performance of these outsourced providers. If these providers fail to perform adequately, our development of product candidates may be delayed and any delay in the development of our product candidates would have a material and adverse effect on our business prospects.

 

We are and will be exposed to product liability risks, and clinical and preclinical liability risks, which could place a substantial financial burden upon us should we be sued.

 

Our business exposes us to potential product liability and other liability risks that are inherent in the testing, manufacturing and marketing of medical devices. Claims may be asserted against us. A successful liability claim or series of claims brought against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may not be able to continue to obtain or maintain adequate product liability insurance on acceptable terms, if at all, and such insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. Claims or losses in excess of any product liability insurance coverage that we may obtain could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our Hemopurifier product may be used in connection with medical procedures in which it is important that those products function with precision and accuracy. If our products do not function as designed, or are designed improperly, we may be forced by regulatory agencies to withdraw such products from the market. In addition, if medical personnel or their patients suffer injury as a result of any failure of our products to function as designed, or our products are designed inappropriately, we may be subject to lawsuits seeking significant compensatory and punitive damages. The risk of product liability claims, product recalls and associated adverse publicity is inherent in the testing, manufacturing, marketing and sale of medical products. We have recently obtained general clinical trial liability insurance coverage. However, our insurance coverage may not be adequate or available. We may not be able to secure product liability insurance coverage on acceptable terms or at reasonable costs when needed. Any product recall or lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages may have a material effect on our business and financial condition. Any liability for mandatory damages could exceed the amount of our coverage. Moreover, a product recall could generate substantial negative publicity about our products and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of other future product candidates.

  

 

 

 10 

 

 

We have not received, and may never receive, approval from the FDA to market a medical device in the United States.

 

Before a new medical device can be marketed in the U.S., it must first receive either premarket approval, or a PMA, or 510(k) clearance from the FDA, unless an exemption applies. A PMA submission, which is a higher standard than a 510(k) clearance, is used to demonstrate to the FDA that a new or modified device is safe and effective. The 510(k) is used to demonstrate that a device is “substantially equivalent” to a predicate device (one that has been cleared by the FDA). We expect that any product we seek regulatory approval for will require a PMA. The FDA approval process involves, among other things, successfully completing clinical trials and filing for and obtaining a PMA. The PMA process requires us to prove the safety and effectiveness of our products to the FDA’s satisfaction. This process, which includes preclinical studies and clinical trials, can take many years and requires the expenditure of substantial resources and may include post-marketing surveillance to establish the safety and efficacy of the product. Notwithstanding the effort and expense incurred, the process may never result in the FDA granting a PMA. Data obtained from preclinical studies and clinical trials are subject to varying interpretations that could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. Delays or rejections may also be encountered based upon changes in governmental policies for medical devices during the period of product development. The FDA can delay, limit or deny approval of a PMA application for many reasons, including:

 

·our inability to demonstrate safety or effectiveness to the FDA’s satisfaction;
·insufficient data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials to support approval;
·failure of the facilities of our third-party manufacturer or suppliers to meet applicable requirements;
·inadequate compliance with preclinical, clinical or other regulations;
·our failure to meet the FDA’s statistical requirements for approval; and
·changes in the FDA’s approval policies, or the adoption of new regulations that require additional data or additional clinical studies.

  

Modifications to products that are approved through a PMA application generally need FDA approval. Similarly, some modifications made to products cleared through a 510(k) may require a new 510(k). The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process usually takes from three to 12 months, but may last longer. The process of obtaining a PMA is much costlier and more uncertain than the 510(k) clearance process and generally takes from one to three years, or even longer, from the time the application is submitted to the FDA until an approval is obtained. Any of our products considered to be a class III device, which are considered to pose the greatest risk and the approval of which is governed by the strictest guidelines, will require the submission and approval of a PMA in order for us to market it in the U.S. We also may design new products in the future that could require the clearance of a 510(k).

 

Although we have received approval to proceed with clinical trials in the U.S. under the investigational device exemption, the current approval from the FDA to proceed could be revoked, the study could be unsuccessful, or the FDA PMA approval may not be obtained or could be revoked. Even if we obtain approval, the FDA or other regulatory authorities may require expensive or burdensome post-market testing or controls. Any delay in, or failure to receive or maintain, clearance or approval for our future products could prevent us from generating revenue from these products or achieving profitability. Additionally, the FDA and other regulatory authorities have broad enforcement powers. Regulatory enforcement or inquiries, or other increased scrutiny on us, could dissuade some physicians from using our products and adversely affect our reputation and the perceived safety and efficacy of our products.

 

The approval requirements for medical products used to fight bioterrorism are still evolving, and any products we develop for such uses may not meet these requirements.

 

We are advancing product candidates under governmental policies that regulate the development and commercialization of medical treatment countermeasures against bioterror and pandemic threats.  While we intend to pursue FDA market clearance to treat infectious bioterror and pandemic threats, it is often not feasible to conduct human studies against these deadly high threat pathogens. Thus, we may not be able to demonstrate the effectiveness of our treatment countermeasures through controlled human efficacy studies. Additionally, a change in government policies could impair our ability to obtain regulatory approval and the FDA may not approve any of our product candidates.

 

 

 

 11 

 

 

The results of our clinical trials may not support our product candidate claims or may result in the discovery of adverse side effects.

 

Any research and development, pre-clinical testing and clinical trial activities involving any products that we are developing or may develop will be subject to extensive regulation and review by numerous governmental authorities both in the U.S. and abroad. In the future, we may conduct clinical trials to support approval of new products. Clinical studies must be conducted in compliance with FDA regulations or the FDA may take enforcement action. The data collected from these clinical studies may ultimately be used to support market clearance for these products. Even if our clinical trials are completed as planned, the results of these trials may not support our product candidate claims and the FDA may not agree with our conclusions regarding the trial results. Success in pre-clinical studies and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical trials will be successful, and the later trials may not replicate the results of prior trials and pre-clinical studies. The clinical trial process may fail to demonstrate that our product candidates are safe and effective for the proposed indicated uses, which could cause us to abandon a product candidate and may delay development of others. Any delay or termination of our clinical trials will delay the filing of our product submissions and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate revenues. It is also possible that patients enrolled in clinical trials will experience adverse side effects that are not currently part of the product candidate’s profile.

 

U.S. legislative or FDA regulatory reforms may make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates and to manufacture, market and distribute our products after approval is obtained.

 

From time to time, legislation is drafted and introduced in Congress that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the regulatory approval, manufacture and marketing of regulated products or the reimbursement thereof. In addition, FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the FDA in ways that may significantly affect our business and our products. Any new regulations or revisions or reinterpretations of existing regulations may impose additional costs or lengthen review times of future products. It is impossible to predict whether legislative changes will be enacted or FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations changed, and what the impact of such changes, if any, may be or new product development efforts.

 

Our current and future business activities may be subject, directly or indirectly, to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, physician payment transparency, health information privacy and security and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to significant penalties.

 

We are currently or will in the future be subject to healthcare regulation and enforcement by the U.S. federal government and the states in which we will conduct our business once our product candidates are approved by the FDA and commercialized in the United States. In addition to the FDA’s restrictions on marketing of approved products, the U.S. healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include: the federal fraud and abuse laws, including the federal anti-kickback and false claims laws; federal data privacy and security laws; and federal transparency laws related to payments and/or other transfers of value made to physicians and other healthcare professionals and teaching hospitals. Many states have similar laws and regulations that may differ from each other and federal law in significant ways, thus complicating compliance efforts. These laws may adversely affect our sales, marketing and other activities with respect to any product candidate for which we receive approval to market in the United States by imposing administrative and compliance burdens on us.

 

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of available statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors, it is possible that some of our business activities, particularly any sales and marketing activities after a product candidate has been approved for marketing in the United States, could be subject to legal challenge and enforcement actions. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the federal and state laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal, and administrative penalties, including, without limitation, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, additional reporting obligations and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

 

 

 

 12 

 

 

Should our products be approved for commercialization, lack of third-party coverage and reimbursement for our devices could delay or limit their adoption.

 

In both the U.S. and international markets, the use of medical devices is dependent in part on the availability of reimbursement from third-party payors, such as government and private insurance plans. Healthcare providers that use medical devices generally rely on third-party payors to pay for all or part of the costs and fees associated with the medical procedures being performed or to compensate them for their patient care services. Should our products under development be approved for commercialization by the FDA, any such products may not be considered cost-effective, reimbursement may not be available in the U.S. or other countries, if approved, and reimbursement may not be sufficient to allow sales of our future products on a profitable basis. The coverage decisions of third-party payors will be significantly influenced by the assessment of our future products by health technology assessment bodies. These assessments are outside our control and any such evaluations may not be conducted or have a favorable outcome.

  

If approved for use in the U.S., we expect that any products that we develop will be purchased primarily by medical institutions, which will in turn bill various third-party payors for the health care services provided to patients at their facility. Payors may include the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, which administers the Medicare program and works in partnership with state governments to administer Medicaid, other government programs and private insurance plans. The process involved in applying for coverage and incremental reimbursement from CMS is lengthy and expensive. Further, Medicare coverage is based on our ability to demonstrate that the treatment is “reasonable and necessary” for Medicare beneficiaries. Even if products utilizing our Aethlon Hemopurifier technology receive FDA and other regulatory clearance or approval, they may not be granted coverage and reimbursement by any payor, including by CMS. For some governmental programs, such as Medicaid, coverage and adequate reimbursement differ from state to state and some state Medicaid programs may not pay adequate amounts for the procedure necessary to utilize products utilizing our technology system, or any payment at all. Moreover, many private payors use coverage decisions and payment amounts determined by CMS as guidelines in setting their coverage and reimbursement policies and amounts. However, no uniform policy requirement for coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists among third-party payors in the United States. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement can differ significantly from payor to payor. If CMS or other agencies limit coverage or decrease or limit reimbursement payments for doctors and hospitals, this may affect coverage and reimbursement determinations by many private payors for any products that we develop.

 

Should our products be approved for commercialization, adverse changes in reimbursement policies and procedures by payors may impact our ability to market and sell our products.

 

Healthcare costs have risen significantly over the past decade, and there have been and continue to be proposals by legislators, regulators and third-party payors to decrease costs. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services and instituting cost containment measures to control or significantly influence the purchase of medical products and services.

 

For example, in the U.S., the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively, PPACA, among other things, reduced and/or limited Medicare reimbursement to certain providers. However, on December 14, 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the Affordable Care Act is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. While the Texas U.S. District Court Judge, as well as the Trump administration and CMS, have stated that the ruling will have no immediate effect pending appeal of the decision, it is unclear how this decision, subsequent appeals, and other efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act will impact the Affordable Care Act. The Budget Control Act of 2011, as amended by subsequent legislation, further reduces Medicare’s payments to providers by two percent through fiscal year 2027. These reductions may reduce providers’ revenues or profits, which could affect their ability to purchase new technologies. Furthermore, the healthcare industry in the U.S. has experienced a trend toward cost containment as government and private insurers seek to control healthcare costs by imposing lower payment rates and negotiating reduced contract rates with service providers. Legislation could be adopted in the future that limits payments for our products from governmental payors. In addition, commercial payors such as insurance companies, could adopt similar policies that limit reimbursement for medical device manufacturers’ products. Therefore, it is possible that our product or the procedures or patient care performed using our product will not be reimbursed at a cost-effective level. We face similar risks relating to adverse changes in reimbursement procedures and policies in other countries where we may market our products. Reimbursement and healthcare payment systems vary significantly among international markets. Our inability to obtain international reimbursement approval, or any adverse changes in the reimbursement policies of foreign payors, could negatively affect our ability to sell our products and have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

 

 

 

 13 

 

 

Should our products be approved for commercialization, our financial performance may be adversely affected by medical device tax provisions in the healthcare reform laws.

 

PPACA currently imposes, among other things, an excise tax of 2.3% on any entity that manufactures or imports medical devices offered for sale in the U.S. Under these provisions, the Congressional Research Service predicts that the total cost to the medical device industry may be up to $20 billion over the next decade. The Internal Revenue Service issued final regulations implementing the tax in December 2012, which requires, among other things, bi-monthly payments and quarterly reporting.

 

The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 (Pub. L. 114-113), signed into law on Dec. 18, 2015, included a two-year moratorium on the medical device excise tax imposed by Internal Revenue Code section 4191. This moratorium was then extended by an additional two years in January 2018. Currently, the medical device excise tax does not apply to the sale of a taxable medical device by the manufacturer, producer, or importer of the device until January 1, 2020, unless the moratorium is further extended.

 

Once we market products, if this regulation is not repealed, we will be subject to this or any future excise tax on our sales of certain medical devices in the U.S. We anticipate that primarily all of our sales, once commenced, of medical devices in the U.S. will be subject to this 2.3% excise tax.

 

Our use of hazardous materials, chemicals and viruses exposes us to potential liabilities for which we may not have adequate insurance.

 

Our research and development involves the controlled use of hazardous materials, chemicals and viruses. The primary hazardous materials include chemicals needed to construct the Hemopurifier cartridges and the infected plasma samples used in preclinical testing of the Hemopurifier. All other chemicals are fully inventoried and reported to the appropriate authorities, such as the fire department, who inspect the facility on a regular basis. We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign laws governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of such materials. Although we believe that our safety procedures for the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of such materials comply with the standards prescribed by federal, state, local and foreign regulations, we cannot completely eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. We have had no incidents or problems involving hazardous chemicals or biological samples. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for significant damages or fines.

 

We currently carry a limited amount of insurance to protect us from damages arising from hazardous materials. Our product liability policy has a $3,000,000 limit of liability that would cover certain releases of hazardous substances away from our facilities. For our facilities, our property policy provides $25,000 in coverage for contaminant clean-up or removal and $50,000 in coverage for damages to the premises resulting from contamination. Should we violate any regulations concerning the handling or use of hazardous materials, or should any injuries or death result from our use or handling of hazardous materials, we could be the subject of substantial lawsuits by governmental agencies or individuals. We may not have adequate insurance to cover all or any of such claims, if any. If we were responsible to pay significant damages for violations or injuries, if any, we might be forced to cease operations since such payments could deplete our available resources.

 

 

 

 

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Our products may in the future be subject to product recalls. A recall of our products, either voluntarily or at the direction of the FDA or another governmental authority, including a third-country authority, or the discovery of serious safety issues with our products, could have a significant adverse impact on us.

 

The FDA and similar foreign governmental authorities have the authority to require the recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture. For the FDA, the authority to require a recall must be based on a finding that there is reasonable probability that the device would cause serious injury or death. In addition, foreign governmental bodies have the authority to require the recall of our products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture. Manufacturers may, under their own initiative, recall a product if any material deficiency in a device is found. The FDA requires that certain classifications of recalls be reported to the FDA within 10 working days after the recall is initiated. A government-mandated or voluntary recall by us or one of our international distributors could occur as a result of an unacceptable risk to health, component failures, malfunctions, manufacturing errors, design or labeling defects or other deficiencies and issues. Recalls of any of our products would divert managerial and financial resources and have an adverse effect on our reputation, results of operations and financial condition, which could impair our ability to produce our products in a cost-effective and timely manner in order to meet our customers’ demands. We may also be subject to liability claims, be required to bear other costs, or take other actions that may have a negative impact on our future sales and our ability to generate profits. Companies are required to maintain certain records of recalls, even if they are not reportable to the FDA or another third-country competent authority. We may initiate voluntary recalls involving our products in the future that we determine do not require notification of the FDA or another third-country competent authority. If the FDA disagrees with our determinations, they could require us to report those actions as recalls. A future recall announcement could harm our reputation with customers and negatively affect our sales. In addition, the FDA could take enforcement action for failing to report recalls. We are also required to follow detailed recordkeeping requirements for all firm-initiated medical device corrections and removals.

  

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property and Related Litigation

 

We rely upon licenses and patent rights from third parties which are subject to termination or expiration.

 

We rely upon third-party licenses and ownership rights assigned from third parties for the development of specific uses for our Hemopurifier devices. For example, we are researching, developing and testing cancer-related applications for our devices under patents assigned from the London Health Science Center Research, Inc. Should any of our licenses be prematurely terminated for any reason, or if the patents and intellectual property assigned to us or owned by such entities that we have licensed are challenged or defeated by third parties, our research efforts could be materially and adversely affected. Our licenses and patents assigned to us may not continue in force for as long as we require for our research, development and testing of cancer treatments. It is possible that, if our licenses terminate or the underlying patents and intellectual property is challenged or defeated or the patents and intellectual property assigned to us is challenged or defeated, suitable replacements may not be obtained or developed on terms acceptable to us, if at all. There is also the related risk that we may not be able to make the required payments under any patent license or assignment agreement, in which case we may lose to ability to use one or more of the licensed or assigned patents.

 

We could become subject to intellectual property litigation that could be costly, result in the diversion of management’s time and efforts, require us to pay damages, prevent us from selling our commercially available products and/or reduce the margins we may realize from our products.

 

The medical devices industry is characterized by extensive litigation and administrative proceedings over patent and other intellectual property rights. Whether a product infringes a patent involves complex legal and factual issues, and the determination is often uncertain. There may be existing patents of which we are unaware that our products under development may inadvertently infringe. The likelihood that patent infringement claims may be brought against us increases as the number of participants in the infectious market increases and as we achieve more visibility in the market place and introduce products to market.

 

 

 

 

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Any infringement claim against us, even if without merit, may cause us to incur substantial costs, and would place a significant strain on our financial resources, divert the attention of management from our core business, and harm our reputation. In some cases, litigation may be threatened or brought by a patent holding company or other adverse patent owner who has no relevant product revenues and against whom our patents may provide little or no deterrence. If we are found to infringe any patents, we could be required to pay substantial damages, including triple damages if an infringement is found to be willful. We also could be required to pay royalties and could be prevented from selling our products unless we obtain a license or are able to redesign our products to avoid infringement. We may not be able to obtain a license enabling us to sell our products on reasonable terms, or at all. If we fail to obtain any required licenses or make any necessary changes to our technologies or the products, we may be unable to commercialize one or more of our products or may have to withdraw products from the market, all of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

If the combination of patents, trade secrets and contractual provisions upon which we rely to protect our intellectual property is inadequate, our ability to commercialize our products successfully will be harmed.

 

Our success depends significantly on our ability to protect our proprietary rights to the technologies incorporated in our products. We currently have five issued U.S. patents and seven pending U.S. patent applications. We also have 26 issued foreign patents and have applied for nine additional international patents. Our issued patents begin to expire in 2019, with the last of these patents expiring in 2029, although terminal disclaimers, patent term extension or patent term adjustment can shorten or lengthen the patent term. We rely on a combination of patent protection, trade secret laws and nondisclosure, confidentiality and other contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary technology. However, these may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage.

 

The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its scope, validity or enforceability. The scope, validity or enforceability of our issued patents can be challenged in litigation or proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or foreign patent offices where our applications are pending. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or foreign offices may deny or require significant narrowing of claims in our pending patent applications. Patents issued as a result of the pending patent applications, if any, may not provide us with significant commercial protection or be issued in a form that is advantageous to us. Proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or foreign offices could result in adverse decisions as to the priority of our inventions and the narrowing or invalidation of claims in issued patents. The laws of some foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S., if at all. Some of our patents may expire before we receive FDA approval to market our products in the U.S. or we receive approval to market our products in a foreign country. Although we believe that certain patent applications and/or other patents issued more recently will help protect the proprietary nature of the Hemopurifier treatment technology, this protection may not be sufficient to protect us during the development of that technology.

  

Our competitors may successfully challenge and invalidate or render unenforceable our issued patents, including any patents that may issue in the future, which could prevent or limit our ability to market our products and could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing products that are substantially equivalent to ours. In addition, competitors may be able to design around our patents or develop products that provide outcomes that are comparable to our products but that are not covered by our patents.

 

We have also entered into confidentiality and assignment of intellectual property agreements with all of our employees, consultants and advisors directly involved in the development of our technology as one of the ways we seek to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary technology. However, these agreements may not be enforceable or may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure or other breaches of the agreements.

 

In the event a competitor infringes upon any of our patents or other intellectual property rights, enforcing our rights may be difficult, time consuming and expensive, and would divert management’s attention from managing our business. We may not be successful on the merits in any enforcement effort. In addition, we may not have sufficient resources to litigate, enforce or defend our intellectual property rights.

 

 

 

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We may rely on licenses for new technology, which may affect our continued operations with respect thereto.

 

As we develop our technology, we may need to license additional technologies to optimize the performance of our products. We may not be able to license these technologies on commercially reasonable terms or at all. In addition, we may fail to successfully integrate any licensed technology into our proposed products. Our inability to obtain any necessary licenses could delay our product development and testing until alternative technologies can be identified, licensed and integrated. The inability to obtain any necessary third-party licenses could cause us to abandon a particular development path, which could seriously harm our business, financial position and results of our operations.

 

New technology may lead to our competitors developing superior products which would reduce demand for our products.

 

Research into technologies similar to ours is proceeding at a rapid pace, and many private and public companies and research institutions are actively engaged in the development of products similar to ours. These new technologies may, if successfully developed, offer significant performance or price advantages when compared with our technologies. Our existing patents or our pending and proposed patent applications may not offer meaningful protection if a competitor develops a novel product based on a new technology.

 

If we are unable to protect our proprietary technology and preserve our trade secrets, we will increase our vulnerability to competitors which could materially adversely impact our ability to remain in business.

 

Our ability to successfully commercialize our products will depend on our ability to protect those products and our technology with domestic and foreign patents. We will also need to continue to preserve our trade secrets. The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its validity or as to the enforceable scope of the claims of the patent. The patent positions of technology companies, including us, are uncertain and involve complex legal and factual issues. Our patents may not prevent other companies from developing similar products or products which produce benefits substantially the same as our products, and other companies may be issued patents that may prevent the sale of our products or require us to pay significant licensing fees in order to market our products.

 

From time to time, we may need to obtain licenses to patents and other proprietary rights held by third parties in order to develop, manufacture and market our products. If we are unable to timely obtain these licenses on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to commercially exploit such products may be inhibited or prevented. Our pending patent applications may not result in issued patents, patent protection may not be secured for any particular technology, and our issued patents may not be valid or enforceable or provide us with meaningful protection.

  

If we are required to engage in expensive and lengthy litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could be very costly and the results of such litigation may not be satisfactory.

 

Although we have entered into invention assignment agreements with our employees and with certain advisors, and we routinely enter into confidentiality agreements with our contract partners, if those employees, advisors or contract partners develop inventions or processes independently that may relate to products or technology under development by us, disputes may arise about the ownership of those inventions or processes. Time-consuming and costly litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our rights under these agreements. In addition, we may be required to commence litigation to enforce such agreements if they are violated, and it is certainly possible that we will not have adequate remedies for breaches of our confidentiality agreements as monetary damages may not be sufficient to compensate us. We may be unable to fund the costs of any such litigation to a satisfactory conclusion, which could leave us without recourse to enforce contracts that protect our intellectual property rights.

 

 

 

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Other companies may claim that our technology infringes on their intellectual property or proprietary rights and commence legal proceedings against us which could be time-consuming and expensive and could result in our being prohibited from developing, marketing, selling or distributing our products.

 

Because of the complex and difficult legal and factual questions that relate to patent positions in our industry, it is possible that our products or technology could be found to infringe upon the intellectual property or proprietary rights of others. Third parties may claim that our products or technology infringe on their patents, copyrights, trademarks or other proprietary rights and demand that we cease development or marketing of those products or technology or pay license fees. We may not be able to avoid costly patent infringement litigation, which will divert the attention of management away from the development of new products and the operation of our business. We may not prevail in any such litigation. If we are found to have infringed on a third-party’s intellectual property rights, we may be liable for money damages, encounter significant delays in bringing products to market or be precluded from manufacturing particular products or using particular technology.

 

Other parties may challenge certain of our foreign patent applications. If any such parties are successful in opposing our foreign patent applications, we may not gain the protection afforded by those patent applications in particular jurisdictions and may face additional proceedings with respect to similar patents in other jurisdictions, as well as related patents. The loss of patent protection in one jurisdiction may influence our ability to maintain patent protection for the same technology in other jurisdictions.

 

Risks Related to U.S. Government Contracts

 

We may not obtain additional U.S. Government contracts to further develop our technology.

 

We may not be successful in obtaining additional government grants or contracts. The process of obtaining government contracts is lengthy with the uncertainty that we will be successful in obtaining announced grants or contracts for therapeutics as a medical device technology. Accordingly, we may not be awarded any additional U.S. Government grants or contracts utilizing our Hemopurifier platform technology.

 

U.S. Government agencies have special contracting requirements, including a right to audit us which create additional risksa negative audit would be detrimental to us.

 

Our business plan to utilize the Aethlon Hemopurifier technology is likely to continue to involve contracts with the U.S. Government. Such contracts typically contain unfavorable termination provisions and are subject to audit and modification by the government at its sole discretion, which subjects us to additional risks. These risks include the ability of the U.S. Government to unilaterally:

 

·suspend or prevent us for a period of time from receiving new contracts or extending existing contracts based on violations or suspected violations of laws or regulations;
·audit and object to our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs;
·control and potentially prohibit the export of our products; and
·change certain terms and conditions in our contracts.

   

As a U.S. Government contractor, we are required to comply with applicable laws, regulations and standards relating to our accounting practices and would be subject to periodic audits and reviews. As part of any such audit or review, the U.S. Government may review the adequacy of, and our compliance with, our internal control systems and policies, including those relating to our purchasing, property, estimating, compensation and management information systems. Based on the results of its audits, the U.S. Government may adjust our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs. In addition, if an audit or review uncovers any improper or illegal activity, we would possibly be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of our contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspension or prohibition from doing business with the U.S. Government. We could also suffer serious harm to our reputation if allegations of impropriety were made against us. Although we have not had any government audits and reviews to date, future audits and reviews could cause adverse effects. In addition, under U.S. Government purchasing regulations, some of our costs, including most financing costs, amortization of intangible assets, portions of our research and development costs, and some marketing expenses, would possibly not be reimbursable or allowed under such contracts. Further, as a U.S. Government contractor, we would be subject to an increased risk of investigations, criminal prosecution, civil fraud, whistleblower lawsuits and other legal actions and liabilities.

 

 

 

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As a U.S. Government contractor, we are subject to a number of procurement rules and regulations.

 

Government contractors must comply with specific procurement regulations and other requirements. These requirements, although customary in government contracts, impact our performance and compliance costs. In addition, current U.S. Government budgetary constraints could lead to changes in the procurement environment, including the Department of Defense’s recent initiative focused on efficiencies, affordability and cost growth and other changes to its procurement practices. If and to the extent such changes occur, they could impact our results of operations and liquidity, and could affect whether and, if so, how we pursue certain opportunities and the terms under which we are able to do so.

 

In addition, failure to comply with these regulations and requirements could result in reductions of the value of contracts, contract modifications or termination, and the assessment of penalties and fines, which could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition. Our failure to comply with these regulations and requirements could also lead to suspension or debarment, for cause, from government contracting or subcontracting for a period of time. Among the causes for debarment are violations of various statutes, including those related to procurement integrity, export control, government security regulations, employment practices, protection of the environment, accuracy of records and the recording of costs, and foreign corruption. The termination of our government contract as a result of any of these acts could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition and could have a negative impact on our reputation and ability to procure other government contracts in the future.

 

Risks Relating to Our Common Stock and Our Corporate Governance

 

Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market could result in a de-listing of our common stock.

 

If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market, or Nasdaq, such as the minimum stockholders’ equity requirement or the minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq may take steps to de-list our common stock. In May 2019, we received a letter from Nasdaq indicating that Nasdaq has determined that we have failed to comply with the minimum bid price requirement of Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2). Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) requires that companies listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market maintain a minimum closing bid price of at least $1.00 per share. In July 2019, we received another letter from Nasdaq indicating that Nasdaq has determined that we have failed to comply with the minimum stockholder’s equity requirement of Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1). Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1) requires that companies listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market maintain a minimum of $2,500,000 in stockholder’s equity.  If we fail to regain and maintain compliance with these, or any other of the continued listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market, Nasdaq may take steps to de-list our common stock. Such a de-listing would likely have a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our common stock when you wish to do so. In the event of a de-listing, we would take actions to restore our compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements, but any such action taken by us may not be successful.

 

Historically we have not paid dividends on our common stock, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock. We intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund operational and capital expenditure needs of our business, and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of gain for our common stockholders in the foreseeable future.

 

 

 

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Our stock price is speculative, and there is a risk of litigation.

 

The trading price of our common stock has in the past and may in the future be subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors such as the following:

 

·failure to raise additional funds when needed;
·failure to maintain our listing on Nasdaq;
·results of operations or revenue in any quarter failing to meet the expectations, published or otherwise, of the investment community;
·reduced investor confidence in equity markets;
·speculation in the press or analyst community;
·wide fluctuations in stock prices, particularly with respect to the stock prices for other medical device companies;
·announcements of technological innovations by us or our competitors;
·new products or the acquisition of significant customers by us or our competitors;
·changes in interest rates;
·changes in investors’ beliefs as to the appropriate price-earnings ratios for us and our competitors;
·changes in recommendations or financial estimates by securities analysts who track our common stock or the stock of other medical device companies;
·changes in management;
·sales of common stock by directors and executive officers;
·rumors or dissemination of false or misleading information, particularly through Internet chat rooms, instant messaging, and other rapid-dissemination methods;
·conditions and trends in the medical device industry generally;
·the announcement of acquisitions or other significant transactions by us or our competitors;
·adoption of new accounting standards affecting our industry;
·general market conditions;
·domestic or international terrorism and other factors; and
·the other factors described in this section.

 

Fluctuations in the price of our common stock may expose us to the risk of securities class action lawsuits. Although no such lawsuits are currently pending against us and we are not aware that any such lawsuit is threatened to be filed in the future, future lawsuits are possible as a result of fluctuations in the price of our common stock. Defending against any such suits could result in substantial cost and divert management’s attention and resources. In addition, any settlement or adverse determination of such lawsuits could subject us to significant liability.

 

 

 

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If at any time our common stock is subject to the Securities and Exchange Commission’s penny stock rules, broker-dealers may experience difficulty in completing customer transactions and trading activity in our securities may be adversely affected.

 

If at any time our common stock is not listed on a national securities exchange or we have net tangible assets of $2,000,000 or less, or we have an average revenue of less than $6,000,000 for the last three years, and our common stock has a market price per share of less than $5.00, transactions in our common stock will be subject to the Securities and Exchange Commission’s, or SEC’s, “penny stock” rules. If our common stock is subject to the “penny stock” rules promulgated under the Exchange Act, broker-dealers may find it difficult to effectuate customer transactions and trading activity in our securities may be adversely affected. For any transaction involving a penny stock, unless exempt, the rules require:

 

·that a broker or dealer approve a person’s account for transactions in penny stocks;
·furnish the investor a disclosure document describing the risks of investing in penny stocks;
·disclose to the investor the current market quotation, if any, for the penny stock;
·disclose to the investor the amount of compensation the firm and its broker will receive for the trade; and
·The broker or dealer receive from the investor a written agreement to the transaction, setting forth the identity and quantity of the penny stock to be purchased.

 

In order to approve a person’s account for transactions in penny stocks, the broker or dealer must:

 

·obtain financial information and investment experience objectives of the person; and
·make a reasonable determination that the transactions in penny stocks are suitable for that person and the person has sufficient knowledge and experience in financial matters to be capable of evaluating the risks of transactions in penny stocks.

 

The broker or dealer must also deliver, prior to any transaction in a penny stock, a disclosure schedule prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission relating to the penny stock market, which, in highlight form:

 

·sets forth the basis on which the broker or dealer made the suitability determination; and
·that the broker or dealer received a signed, written agreement from the investor prior to the transaction.

 

Generally, brokers may be less willing to execute transactions in securities subject to the “penny stock” rules. This may make it more difficult for investors to dispose of our common stock and cause a decline in the market value of our stock.

 

Disclosure also has to be made about the risks of investing in penny stocks in both public offerings and in secondary trading and about the commissions payable to both the broker-dealer and the registered representative, current quotations for the securities and the rights and remedies available to an investor in cases of fraud in penny stock transactions. Finally, monthly statements have to be sent disclosing recent price information for the penny stock held in the account and information on the limited market in penny stocks.

 

Our common stock has had an unpredictable trading volume which means you may not be able to sell our shares at or near trading prices or at all.

 

Trading in our common shares historically has been volatile and often has been thin, meaning that the number of persons interested in purchasing our common shares at or near trading prices at any given time may be relatively small or non-existent. This situation is attributable to a number of factors, including the fact that we are a small company which is relatively unknown to stock analysts, stock brokers, institutional investors and others in the investment community that generate or influence sales volume, and that even if we came to the attention of such persons, they tend to be risk-averse and would be reluctant to follow an unproven company such as ours or purchase or recommend the purchase of our shares until such time as we became more seasoned and viable. As a consequence, there may be periods of several days or more when trading activity in our shares is minimal, as compared to a seasoned issuer which has a large and steady volume of trading activity that will generally support continuous sales without an adverse effect on share price. A broader or more active public trading market for our common shares may not develop or be sustained, and current trading levels may decrease.

 

 

 

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The market price for our common stock is volatile; you may not be able to sell our common stock at or above the price you have paid for them, which may result in losses to you.

 

The market for our common shares is characterized by significant price volatility when compared to seasoned issuers, and we expect that our share price will continue to be more volatile than a seasoned issuer for the indefinite future. During the 52-week period ended April 30, 2019, the high and low closing sale prices of a share of our common stock were $0.71 and $1.66, respectively. The volatility in our share price is attributable to a number of factors. First, as noted above, trading in our common shares often has been thin. As a consequence of this lack of liquidity, the trading of relatively small quantities of shares by our stockholders may disproportionately influence the price of those shares in either direction. The price for our shares could, for example, decline precipitously in the event that a large number of our common shares are sold on the market without commensurate demand, as compared to a seasoned issuer which could better absorb those sales without adverse impact on its share price. Secondly, we are a speculative investment due to our limited operating history, limited amount of cash and revenue, lack of profit to date, and the uncertainty of future market acceptance for our potential products. As a consequence of this enhanced risk, more risk-adverse investors may, under the fear of losing all or most of their investment in the event of negative news or lack of progress, be more inclined to sell their shares on the market more quickly and at greater discounts than would be the case with the stock of a seasoned issuer.

 

The following factors also may add to the volatility in the price of our common shares: actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly or annual operating results; acceptance of our proprietary technology as a viable method of augmenting the immune response of clearing viruses and toxins from human blood; government regulations, announcements of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures; our capital commitments and additions or departures of our key personnel. Many of these factors are beyond our control and may decrease the market price of our common shares regardless of our operating performance. We cannot make any predictions or projections as to what the prevailing market price for our common shares will be at any time, including as to whether our common shares will sustain their current market prices, or as to what effect the sale of shares or the availability of common shares for sale at any time will have on the prevailing market price.

 

Our directors and officers own or control approximately 6.5% of our outstanding common shares, which may limit your ability to propose new management or influence the overall direction of the business; this concentration of control may also discourage potential takeovers that could otherwise provide a premium to you.

 

As of June 27, 2019, our officers and directors beneficially owned or controlled approximately 6.5% of our outstanding common stock, assuming the exercise of all outstanding options, restricted stock units and warrants held by our officers and directors. These persons will have the ability to substantially influence all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval and to control our management and affairs, including extraordinary transactions such as mergers and other changes of corporate control, and going private transactions.

 

A large number of our common shares are issuable upon exercise of outstanding convertible securities, which, if exercised or converted, would be dilutive to your holdings.

 

As of March 31, 2019, there were outstanding options and warrants entitling the holders to purchase 6,031,545 shares of our common stock at a weighted average exercise price of $2.12 per share. Additionally, as of March 31, 2019, we had reserved 184,500 shares of common stock for issuance under our equity compensation plans.

 

The exercise price for all of our outstanding options and warrants, or the conversion price of our convertible notes, may be less than your cost to acquire our common shares. In the event of the exercise or conversion of these securities, you could suffer substantial dilution of your investment in terms of your percentage ownership in us as well as the book value of your common shares. In addition, the holders of the convertible notes, common share purchase options or warrants may sell common shares in tandem with their exercise or conversion of those securities to finance that exercise or conversion, or may resell the shares purchased in order to cover any income tax liabilities that may arise from their exercise of the options or warrants or conversion of the notes.

 

 

 

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Our issuance of additional common shares, or convertible securities, would be dilutive to your holdings.

 

We are entitled under our articles of incorporation to issue up to 30,000,000 shares of common stock. We have reserved for issuance 6,566,766 of those shares of common stock for outstanding restricted stock units, options, warrants and convertible notes. As of March 31, 2019, we had issued and outstanding 19,004,253 shares of common stock. As a result, as of March 31, 2019 we had 4,428,981 common shares available for issuance to new investors or for use to satisfy indebtedness or pay service providers.

 

Our Board of Directors may generally issue shares of common stock, restricted stock units or options or warrants to purchase those shares, without further approval by our stockholders based upon such factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant at that time. It is likely that we will be required to issue a large amount of additional securities to raise capital to further our development. It is also likely that we will be required to issue a large amount of additional securities to directors, officers, employees and consultants as compensatory grants in connection with their services, both in the form of stand-alone grants or under our stock plans.

 

Our issuance of additional shares of common stock in satisfaction of services, or to repay indebtedness, would be dilutive to your holdings.

 

Subject to compliance with Nasdaq rules, our Board of Directors may generally issue shares of common stock to pay for debt or services, without further approval by our stockholders based upon such factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant at that time. For the four fiscal years ending March 31, 2018, we issued a total of 1,102,741 shares of common stock to pay for debt to reduce our obligations. In the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, we issued 120,922 shares of common stock to pay for debt to reduce our obligations.

 

Our officers and directors are entitled to indemnification from us for liabilities under our articles of incorporation, which could be costly to us and may discourage the exercise of stockholder rights.

 

Our articles of incorporation provide that we possess and may exercise all powers of indemnification of our officers, directors, employees, agents and other persons and our bylaws also require us to indemnify our officers and directors as permitted under the provisions of the Nevada Revised Statutes (“NRS”). We may also have contractual indemnification obligations under our agreements with our directors, officers and employees. The foregoing indemnification obligations could result in our company incurring substantial expenditures to cover the cost of settlement or damage awards against directors and officers. These provisions and resultant costs may also discourage our company from bringing a lawsuit against directors, officers and employees for breaches of their fiduciary duties, and may similarly discourage the filing of derivative litigation by our stockholders against our directors, officers and employees even though such actions, if successful, might otherwise benefit our company and stockholders.

 

Our bylaws and Nevada law may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management, would have the result of depressing the trading price of our common stock.

 

Certain anti-takeover provisions of Nevada law could have the effect of delaying or preventing a third-party from acquiring us, even if the acquisition arguably could benefit our stockholders.

 

 

 

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Nevada’s “combinations with interested stockholders” statutes (NRS 78.411 through 78.444, inclusive) prohibit specified types of business “combinations” between certain Nevada corporations and any person deemed to be an “interested stockholder” for two years after such person first becomes an “interested stockholder” unless the corporation’s board of directors approves the combination (or the transaction by which such person becomes an “interested stockholder”) in advance, or unless the combination is approved by the board of directors and sixty percent of the corporation’s voting power not beneficially owned by the interested stockholder, its affiliates and associates. Further, in the absence of prior approval certain restrictions may apply even after such two year period. However, these statutes do not apply to any combination of a corporation and an interested stockholder after the expiration of four years after the person first became an interested stockholder. For purposes of these statutes, an “interested stockholder” is any person who is (1) the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of ten percent or more of the voting power of the outstanding voting shares of the corporation, or (2) an affiliate or associate of the corporation and at any time within the two previous years was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of ten percent or more of the voting power of the then outstanding shares of the corporation. The definition of the term “combination” is sufficiently broad to cover most significant transactions between a corporation and an “interested stockholder.” A Nevada corporation may elect in its articles of incorporation not to be governed by these particular laws, but if such election is not made in the corporation’s original articles of incorporation, the amendment (1) must be approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of stock representing a majority of the outstanding voting power of the corporation not beneficially owned by interested stockholders or their affiliates and associates, and (2) is not effective until 18 months after the vote approving the amendment and does not apply to any combination with a person who first became an interested stockholder on or before the effective date of the amendment. We did not make such an election in our original articles of incorporation and have not amended our articles of incorporation to so elect.

 

Nevada’s “acquisition of controlling interest” statutes (NRS 78.378 through 78.3793, inclusive) contain provisions governing the acquisition of a controlling interest in certain Nevada corporations. These “control share” laws provide generally that any person that acquires a “controlling interest” in certain Nevada corporations may be denied voting rights, unless a majority of the disinterested stockholders of the corporation elects to restore such voting rights. These laws would apply to us if we were to have 200 or more stockholders of record (at least 100 of whom have addresses in Nevada appearing on our stock ledger) and do business in the State of Nevada directly or through an affiliated corporation, unless our articles of incorporation or bylaws in effect on the tenth day after the acquisition of a controlling interest provide otherwise. These laws provide that a person acquires a “controlling interest” whenever a person acquires shares of a subject corporation that, but for the application of these provisions of the NRS, would enable that person to exercise (1) one fifth or more, but less than one third, (2) one third or more, but less than a majority or (3) a majority or more, of all of the voting power of the corporation in the election of directors. Once an acquirer crosses one of these thresholds, shares which it acquired in the transaction taking it over the threshold and within the 90 days immediately preceding the date when the acquiring person acquired or offered to acquire a controlling interest become “control shares” to which the voting restrictions described above apply. These laws may have a chilling effect on certain transactions if our articles of incorporation or bylaws are not amended to provide that these provisions do not apply to us or to an acquisition of a controlling interest, or if our disinterested stockholders do not confer voting rights in the control shares.

Various provisions of our bylaws may delay, defer or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt of us that a stockholder might consider in his or her best interest. Our bylaws may be adopted, amended or repealed by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of our outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote for the election of directors, and except as provided by Nevada law, our Board of Directors shall have the power to adopt, amend or repeal the bylaws by a vote of not less than a majority of our directors. The interests of these stockholders and directors may not be consistent with your interests, and they may make changes to the bylaws that are not in line with your concerns.

 

Nevada law also provides that directors may resist a change or potential change in control if the directors determine that the change is opposed to, or not in the best interests of, the corporation. The existence of the foregoing provisions and other potential anti-takeover measures could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.

 

 

 

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We incur substantial costs as a result of being a public company and our management expects to devote substantial time to public company compliance programs.

 

As a public company, we incur significant legal, insurance, accounting and other expenses, including costs associated with public company reporting. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment will result in increased general and administrative expenses and may divert management’s time and attention from product development and commercialization activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us, and our business may be harmed. These laws and regulations could make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance for our directors and officers, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified executive officers and qualified members of our Board of Directors, particularly to serve on our audit and compensation committees. In addition, if we are unable to continue to meet the legal, regulatory and other requirements related to being a public company, we may not be able to maintain the quotation of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market or on any other senior market to which we may apply for listing, which would likely have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they change their recommendations regarding our stock adversely, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. Our research coverage by industry and financial analysts is currently limited. Even if our analyst coverage increases, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

 

Risks Related to This Offering

 

We may experience volatility in our stock price, which could negatively affect your investment, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the offering price.

 

The offering price of our common stock may vary from the market price of our common stock after the offering. If you purchase shares of common stock, you may not be able to resell those shares at or above your purchase price. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including: a quarterly variations in operating results; changes in financial estimates by securities analysts; changes in market valuations of other similar companies; announcements by us or our competitors of new products or of significant technical innovations, contracts, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures; additions or departures of key personnel; any deviations in net sales or in losses from levels expected by securities analysts; and future sales of common stock. In addition, the stock market has recently experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may cause our stock price to fall regardless of our performance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as described in any prospectus supplement, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities for general corporate purposes, including for research and development, sales and marketing initiatives and general administrative expenses, working capital and capital expenditures. In addition, our use of proceeds may include the repayment of debt or refinancing of indebtedness or the acquisition of complementary products or companies.

 

We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for the foregoing purposes. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the allocation of the net proceeds and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the proceeds of any sale of the securities. Pending use of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

When we offer a particular series of securities, we will describe the intended use of the net proceeds from that offering in a prospectus supplement. The actual amount of net proceeds we spend on a particular use will depend on many factors, including our future revenue growth, if any, our future capital expenditures and the amount of cash required by our operations. Many of these factors are beyond our control. Therefore, we will retain broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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DILUTION

 

If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will experience dilution to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 was approximately $2.2 million, or approximately $0.12 per share. Net tangible book value per share represents our total tangible assets less total tangible liabilities, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2019.

 

After giving effect to the assumed sale by us of $4,700,000 of our common stock in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $0.37 per share of our common stock (the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on July 9, 2019), and after deducting the estimated fees and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 would have been approximately $6.8 million or approximately $0.21 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $0.10 per share to existing shareholders and an immediate dilution of approximately $0.28 per share to new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Assumed public offering price per share       $ 0.37  
           
Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019   $ 0.12        
           
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors  $ 0.09        
           
As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019, after giving effect to this offering        $ 0.21  
           
Dilution per share to new investors in the offering       $0.28 

 

We have calculated the dilution discussed above in accordance with Item 506 of Regulation S-K using the last reported sale price of our common stock on a date within five days of the date of this prospectus.

 

The above discussion and table are based on 19,004,253 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2019 and excludes the following, as of that date:

 

  · 886,672 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options under our stock incentive plans at a weighted average exercise price of $3.79 per share;
     
  · 5,144,873 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under outstanding warrants with a weighted average exercise price of $1.80 per share;
     
  · 350,721 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under outstanding convertible notes, including accrued interest through March 31, 2019, with a fixed conversion price of $3.00 per share;
     
  · 184,500 additional shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock incentive plans.

 

 

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our articles of incorporation, our bylaws and applicable provisions of Nevada corporate law. You should read our articles of incorporation and bylaws, which have been publicly filed with the SEC, for the provisions that are important to you.

 

Authorized Capital Stock

 

Our authorized capital consists of 30,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of March 31, 2019, there were issued and outstanding 19,004,253 shares of common stock. On April 14, 2015, we completed a 1-for-50 reverse stock split. Accordingly, our authorized common stock was reduced from 500,000,000 shares to 10,000,000 shares, and each 50 shares of outstanding common stock held by stockholders were combined into one share of common stock. All shares and per share amounts have been revised accordingly.

 

Common Stock

 

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted on by the stockholders. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends as may be declared by the Board of Directors out of funds legally available therefor. If we liquidate, dissolve or wind up, holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. All outstanding shares of common stock are, and all shares of common stock to be outstanding upon completion of this offering will be, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

Effective as of June 10, 2015, Section 6 of Article I of our bylaws was amended and restated in its entirety as follows:

 

“6. Stockholders representing a majority of the stock issued and outstanding, either in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that at any time during which shares of the capital stock of the company are listed for trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market, stockholders representing not less than thirty-three and one-third percent (33 1/3%) of the common voting stock issued and outstanding, either in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the holders of common stock.”

 

Except as otherwise required by Nevada law or as otherwise stated in our bylaws, all stockholder action is taken by the vote of a majority of common stock voting as a single class present at a meeting of stockholders at which a quorum consisting of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock is present in person or proxy.

 

Options and Warrants Convertible into Common Shares

 

As of March 31, 2019, there were outstanding options and warrants entitling the holders to purchase 6,031,545 shares of our common stock at a weighted average exercise price of $2.12 per share.

 

 

 

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Anti-Takeover Effects of Certain Provisions of Nevada Law and Our Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

Nevada’s “combinations with interested stockholders” statutes (NRS 78.411 through 78.444, inclusive) prohibit specified types of business “combinations” between certain Nevada corporations and any person deemed to be an “interested stockholder” for two years after such person first becomes an “interested stockholder” unless the corporation’s board of directors approves the combination (or the transaction by which such person becomes an “interested stockholder”) in advance, or unless the combination is approved by the board of directors and sixty percent of the corporation’s voting power not beneficially owned by the interested stockholder, its affiliates and associates. Further, in the absence of prior approval certain restrictions may apply even after such two year period. However, these statutes do not apply to any combination of a corporation and an interested stockholder after the expiration of four years after the person first became an interested stockholder. For purposes of these statutes, an “interested stockholder” is any person who is (1) the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of ten percent or more of the voting power of the outstanding voting shares of the corporation, or (2) an affiliate or associate of the corporation and at any time within the two previous years was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of ten percent or more of the voting power of the then outstanding shares of the corporation. The definition of the term “combination” is sufficiently broad to cover most significant transactions between a corporation and an “interested stockholder.” A Nevada corporation may elect in its articles of incorporation not to be governed by these particular laws, but if such election is not made in the corporation’s original articles of incorporation, the amendment (1) must be approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of stock representing a majority of the outstanding voting power of the corporation not beneficially owned by interested stockholders or their affiliates and associates, and (2) is not effective until 18 months after the vote approving the amendment and does not apply to any combination with a person who first became an interested stockholder on or before the effective date of the amendment. We did not make such an election in our original articles of incorporation and have not amended our articles of incorporation to so elect.

 

Nevada’s “acquisition of controlling interest” statutes (NRS 78.378 through 78.3793, inclusive) contain provisions governing the acquisition of a controlling interest in certain Nevada corporations. These “control share” laws provide generally that any person that acquires a “controlling interest” in certain Nevada corporations may be denied voting rights, unless a majority of the disinterested stockholders of the corporation elects to restore such voting rights. These laws would apply to us if we were to have 200 or more stockholders of record (at least 100 of whom have addresses in Nevada appearing on our stock ledger) and do business in the State of Nevada directly or through an affiliated corporation, unless our articles of incorporation or bylaws in effect on the tenth day after the acquisition of a controlling interest provide otherwise. These laws provide that a person acquires a “controlling interest” whenever a person acquires shares of a subject corporation that, but for the application of these provisions of the NRS, would enable that person to exercise (1) one fifth or more, but less than one third, (2) one third or more, but less than a majority or (3) a majority or more, of all of the voting power of the corporation in the election of directors. Once an acquirer crosses one of these thresholds, shares which it acquired in the transaction taking it over the threshold and within the 90 days immediately preceding the date when the acquiring person acquired or offered to acquire a controlling interest become “control shares” to which the voting restrictions described above apply. These laws may have a chilling effect on certain transactions if our articles of incorporation or bylaws are not amended to provide that these provisions do not apply to us or to an acquisition of a controlling interest, or if our disinterested stockholders do not confer voting rights in the control shares.

NRS 78.139 also provides that directors may resist a change or potential change in control of the corporation if the board of directors determines that the change or potential change is opposed to or not in the best interest of the corporation upon consideration of any relevant facts, circumstances, contingencies or constituencies pursuant to NRS 78.138(4).

 

In addition, our authorized but unissued shares of common stock are available for our Board of Directors to issue without stockholder approval. We may use these additional shares for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public or private offerings to raise additional capital, corporate acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of our authorized but unissued shares of common stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of our company by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or other transaction. Our authorized but unissued shares may be used to delay, defer or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders. The Board of Directors is also authorized to adopt, amend or repeal our Bylaws, which could delay, defer or prevent a change in control.

 

 

 

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Transfer Agent, Warrant Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Investor Services. The transfer agent’s address is P.O. Box 30170, College Station, TX 77842.

 

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Market

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “AEMD.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

 

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

 

 

 

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General

 

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

 

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

· the title of the series of debt securities;
· any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;
· the maturity date or dates;
· the form of the debt securities of the series;
· the applicability of any guarantees;
· whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
· whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;
· if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
· the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
· our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
· if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;
· the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;
· the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
· any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;
· whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

 

 

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· if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;
· if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;
· additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;
· additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;
· additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;
· additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;
· additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;
· the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;
· whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;
· the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;
· any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and
· any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

 

 

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Events of Default under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

· if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;
· if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;
· if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and
·if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

  · the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and
  · subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

  · the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

· the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,
· such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

  · the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

 

 

 

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Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

· to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;
· to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”
· to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;
· to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;
· to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;
· to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;
· to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;
· to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or
· to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

  

· extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;
· reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or
· reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

  · provide for payment;
  · register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;
  · replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;
  · pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;
  · maintain paying agencies;
  · hold monies for payment in trust;
  · recover excess money held by the trustee;
  · compensate and indemnify the trustee; and
  · appoint any successor trustee.

 

 

 

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In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.


 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

· issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or
· register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

 

 

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Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that, unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.

 

 

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be issued independently or together with common stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

 

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, if any, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

 

General

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms relating to a series of warrants being offered, including:

 

· the title of such securities;
· the offering price or prices and aggregate number of warrants offered;
· the currency or currencies for which the warrants may be purchased;
· if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;
· if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;
· if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;
· in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;
· in the case of warrants to purchase common stock, the number of shares of common stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and the currency in which, these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;
· the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;
· the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
· the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;
· any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;
· the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;
· the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;
· a discussion of any material or special United States federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;
· the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and
· any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

 

 

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Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

  · in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or
  · in the case of warrants to purchase common stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or to exercise voting rights, if any.

 

Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

 

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

 

Governing Law

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

 

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

 

Book-Entry Holders

 

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

 

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

 

Street Name Holders

 

A global security may be terminated in certain situations as described under “-Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated,” or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

 

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

 

Legal Holders

 

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

 

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the legal holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

 

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

 

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

  · how it handles securities payments and notices;
  · whether it imposes fees or charges;
  · how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;
  · whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;
  · how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and
  · if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

 

Global Securities

 

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

 

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

 

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “-Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

 

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

Special Considerations for Global Securities

 

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

 

 

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If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

  · an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
  · an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;
  · an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;
  · an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;
  · the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;
  · we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;
  · the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and
  · financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

 

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

 

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

 

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

 

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

  · if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;
  · if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or
  · if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

 

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

  · at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;
  · at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
  · at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
  · at negotiated prices.

 

We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act. We entered into a sales agreement in June 28, 2016, as amended, with H.C. Wainwright, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $4,700,000 of our common stock through H.C. Wainwright as our sales agent. Upon our delivery of a placement notice to H.C. Wainwright pursuant to the sales agreement and subject to the terms of the sales agreement, H.C. Wainwright may sell our common stock by any method in sales deemed to be an “at the market” offering, including sales made from time to time directly on or through the Nasdaq Capital Market, on any other existing trading market for our common stock, to or through a market maker other than on an exchange or otherwise, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices, and/or in any other method permitted by law.

 

H.C. Wainwright will offer our common stock at prevailing market prices subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement as agreed upon by us and H.C. Wainwright. We will designate the number of shares which we desire to sell, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, H.C. Wainwright will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. Either H.C. Wainwright or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party.

 

Under the terms of the sales agreement, we may also sell our common stock to H.C. Wainwright, as principals for their own accounts, at a price negotiated at the time of sale.

 

We will pay commissions to H.C. Wainwright for their services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock at a commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross sale price per share sold.

 

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on another date that is agreed upon by us and H.C. Wainwright in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, H.C. Wainwright may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to H.C. Wainwright against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  · the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;
  · the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;
  · any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;
  · any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;
  · any public offering price;
  · any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
  · any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

 

 

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Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

 

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

 

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

 

Other than common stock, all securities we offer will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

 

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.

 

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Global Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on the Nasdaq Global Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

 

 

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Trading Markets and Listing of Securities

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than our common stock, which is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. We may elect to list any other class or series of securities on any exchange or market, but we are not obligated to do so. The listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market does not ensure the listing of any other class of our securities on that or any other exchange or market in the future. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a class or series of securities, but the underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot give any assurance as to the liquidity of the trading market for any of the securities.

 

Stabilization Activities

 

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of these activities at any time.

 

Passive Market Making

 

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on the Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security. If all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker's bid, however, the passive market maker's bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the shares of Common Stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the offering and the enforceability of debt securities or warrants offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon by Cooley LLP.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Aethlon Medical, Inc. as of March 31, 2019 and 2018 and for each of the years in the two-year period ended March 31, 2019 incorporated in this Prospectus by reference from the Aethlon Medical, Inc. Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2019 have been audited by Squar Milner LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report thereon, incorporated herein by reference, and have been incorporated in this Prospectus and Registration Statement in reliance upon such report and upon the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

INTERESTS OF EXPERTS

 

No expert or counsel named in this prospectus as having prepared or certified any part of this prospectus or having given an opinion upon the validity of the securities being registered or upon other legal matters in connection with the registration or offering of the common stock was employed on a contingency basis, or had, or is to receive, in connection with the offering, a substantial interest, direct or indirect, in the registrant, nor was any such person connected with the registrant as a promoter, managing or principal underwriter, voting trustee, director, officer or employee.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Aethlon Medical. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

 

We maintain a website at www.aethlonmedical.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

 

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus the documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC (other than Current Reports or portions thereof furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the effectiveness of the registration statement but prior to the termination of the offering of the common stock covered by this prospectus:

 

  · Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, which was filed with the SEC on July 1, 2019;
  · our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, which was filed on February 22, 2019;
  · The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the Commission on July 8, 2015, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at Aethlon Medical, Inc., 9635 Granite Ridge Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, California 92123, (858) 459-7800.

 

You should rely only on the information provided in and incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front cover of these documents.

 

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.

 

DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION’S POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR

SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY

 

Our directors and officers are indemnified as provided by the Nevada Revised Statutes and our Bylaws. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933, or Securities Act, may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by us of expenses incurred or paid by one of our directors, officers or controlling persons in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, we will, unless in the opinion of our counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by us is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

 

 

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Aethlon Medical, Inc.

 

$1,250,000

 

Common Stock 

 

__________________

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

 

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co.

 

_________________

 

August 20, 2019