NOTE 3. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|6 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2011
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
NOTE 3. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The summary of our significant accounting policies presented below is designed to assist the reader in understanding our condensed consolidated financial statements. Such financial statements and related notes are the representations of our management, who are responsible for their integrity and objectivity. These accounting policies conform to GAAP in all material respects, and have been consistently applied in preparing the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.
PRINCIPLES OF CONSOLIDATION
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Aethlon Medical, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Exosome Sciences, Inc., (collectively hereinafter referred to as the "Company" or "Aethlon"). There exist no material intercompany transactions or balances between Aethlon and its subsidiary.
LOSS PER COMMON SHARE
Basic loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares assumed to be outstanding during the period of computation. Diluted loss per common share is computed similar to basic loss per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the potential common shares had been issued, and if the additional common shares were dilutive. As we had net losses for all periods presented, basic and diluted loss per common share are the same, since additional potential common shares have been excluded as their effect would be antidilutive.
The potentially dilutive common shares outstanding for the quarters ended September 30, 2011 and 2010, which include common shares underlying outstanding stock options, warrants and convertible debentures, were 110,033,840 and 78,287,876, respectively. At September 30, 2011, we had 936,546 shares available under our 2003 and 2010 S-8 Stock Plans.
We capitalize the cost of patents, some of which were acquired, and amortize such costs over the estimated useful life, upon issuance of the patent.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES
We incurred research and development expenses during the three and six month periods ended September 30, 2011 and 2010, which are included in various operating expense line items in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations. Our research and development expenses in those periods were as follows:
FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The carrying amount of the Company's cash, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximates their estimated fair values due to the short-term maturities of these financial instruments. The fair value of certain convertible notes and related warrants at September 30, 2011 is $1,341,726 based upon a third party valuation report that we commissioned. Warrants classified as derivative liabilities are reported at their estimated fair value, with changes in fair value being reported in current period results of operations.
Management has concluded that it is not practical to determine the estimated fair value of amounts due to related parties because the transactions cannot be assumed to have been consummated at arm's length, the terms are not deemed to be market terms, there are no quoted values available for these instruments, and an independent valuation would not be practicable due to the lack of data regarding similar instruments, if any, and the associated potential costs.
EQUITY INSTRUMENTS FOR SERVICES PROVIDED BY OTHER THAN EMPLOYEES
We account for transactions involving goods and services provided by third parties where we issue equity instruments as part of the total consideration using the fair value of the consideration received (i.e., the value of the goods or services) or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable.
In transactions, when the value of the goods and/or services is not readily determinable and (1) the fair value of the equity instruments is more reliably measurable and (2) the counterparty receives equity instruments in full or partial settlement of the transactions, we use the following methodology:
IMPAIRMENT OR DISPOSAL OF LONG-LIVED ASSETS
We review our long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If the cost basis of a long-lived asset is greater than the projected future undiscounted net cash flows from such asset (excluding interest), an impairment loss is recognized. Impairment losses are calculated as the difference between the cost basis of an asset and its estimated fair value. We believe that no impairment occurred at or during the six months ended September 30, 2011 and 2010.
BENEFICIAL CONVERSION FEATURE OF CONVERTIBLE NOTES PAYABLE
The convertible feature of certain notes payable provides for a rate of conversion that is below the market value of our common stock. Such feature is normally characterized as a "Beneficial Conversion Feature" ("BCF"). We record the estimated fair value of the BCF, when applicable, in the condensed consolidated financial statements as a discount from the face amount of the notes. Such discounts are accreted to interest expense over the term of the notes using the effective interest method.
DERIVATIVE LIABILITIES AND CLASSIFICATION
We evaluate free-standing derivative instruments (or embedded derivatives) to properly classify such instruments within equity or as liabilities in our financial statements. Our policy is to settle instruments indexed to our common shares on a first-in-first-out basis.
The classification of a derivative instrument is reassessed at each balance sheet date. If the classification changes as a result of events during a reporting period, the instrument is reclassified as of the date of the event that caused the reclassification. There is no limit on the number of times a contract may be reclassified.
On April 1, 2009 we adopted new guidance, as codified in Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 815-40, Derivatives and Hedging, Accounting for Derivative Financial Instruments Indexed to, and Potentially Settled in, a Company’s Own Stock (previously EITF 07-5), that requires us to apply a two-step model in determining whether a financial instrument or an embedded feature is indexed to our own stock and thus enables it to qualify for equity classification. We have identified several convertible debt or warrant agreements in which the embedded conversion feature or exercise price contains certain provisions that may result in an adjustment of the conversion or exercise price, which results in the failure of the these instruments to be considered to be indexed to our stock. Accordingly, under this guidance, we are required to record the estimated fair value of these instruments as derivative liabilities (see Note 9).
We re-measure the estimated fair value of derivative liabilities at each reporting period and record changes in fair value in other expense (income) in the current statement of operations.
REGISTRATION PAYMENT ARRANGEMENTS
We account for contingent obligations to make future payments or otherwise transfer consideration under a registration payment arrangement separately from any related financing transaction agreements, and any such contingent obligations are recognized only when it is determined that it is probable that the Company will become obligated for future payments and the amount, or range of amounts, of such future payments can be reasonably estimated (see Note 7).
Employee stock options and rights to purchase shares under stock participation plans are accounted for under the fair value method. Accordingly, share-based compensation is measured when all granting activities have been completed, generally the grant date, based on the fair value of the award. The exercise price of options is generally equal to the market price of the Company's common stock (defined as the closing price as quoted on the OTCBB) on the date of grant. Compensation cost recognized by the Company includes (a) compensation cost for all equity incentive awards granted prior to, but not yet vested as of April 1, 2006, based on the grant-date fair value estimated in accordance with the original provisions of the then current accounting standards, and (b) compensation cost for all equity incentive awards granted subsequent to April 1, 2006, based on the grant-date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of subsequent accounting standards. We use a Binomial Lattice option pricing model for estimating fair value of options granted (see Note 10).
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to the difference between the consolidated financial statements and their respective tax basis. Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of (a) temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts reported for income tax purposes, and (b) tax credit carryforwards. We record a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets when, based on our best estimate of taxable income (if any) in the foreseeable future, it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred tax assets may not be realized.
SIGNIFICANT RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
There were no recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB (including its Emerging Issues Task Force), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, or the Securities and Exchange Commission during the three months ended September 30, 2011 or that were issued in prior periods but do not become effective until future periods that in the opinion of management had, or are expected to have a material impact on our present or future consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef