Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

NOTE 3. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

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NOTE 3. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
9 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2011
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]

NOTE 3. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES


The summary of our significant accounting policies presented below is designed to assist the reader in understanding our condensed consolidated financial statements. Such financial statements and related notes are the representations of our management, who are responsible for their integrity and objectivity. These accounting policies conform to GAAP in all material respects, and have been consistently applied in preparing the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.


PRINCIPLES OF CONSOLIDATION


The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Aethlon Medical, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Exosome Sciences, Inc., (collectively hereinafter referred to as the "Company" or "Aethlon"). There exist no material intercompany transactions or balances between Aethlon and its subsidiary.


LOSS PER COMMON SHARE


Basic loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares assumed to be outstanding during the period of computation. Diluted loss per common share is computed similar to basic loss per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the potential common shares had been issued, and if the additional common shares were dilutive. As we had net losses for all periods presented, basic and diluted loss per common share are the same, since additional potential common shares have been excluded as their effect would be antidilutive.


The potentially dilutive common shares outstanding for at December 31, 2011 and 2010, which include common shares underlying outstanding stock options, warrants and convertible debentures, were 114,215,775 and 81,138,329, respectively.


PATENTS


We capitalize the cost of patents, some of which were acquired, and amortize such costs over their estimated useful life, upon issuance of the patent, not to exceed the patent legal life.


RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES


We incurred research and development expenses during the three and nine month periods ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, which are included in various operating expense line items in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations. Our research and development expenses in those periods were as follows:


    December 31,   December 31,
    2011   2010
Three months ended   $ 536,079     $ 127,918  
Nine months ended   $ 864,443     $ 317,345  

FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS


The carrying amount of the Company's cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximates their estimated fair values due to the short-term maturities of these financial instruments. The fair value of certain convertible notes and related warrants at December 31, 2011 is $1,250,705 based upon a third party valuation report that we commissioned. Warrants classified as derivative liabilities are reported at their estimated fair value, with changes in fair value being reported in current period results of operations.


Management has concluded that it is not practical to determine the estimated fair value of amounts due to related parties because the transactions cannot be assumed to have been consummated at arm's length, the terms are not deemed to be market terms, there are no quoted values available for these instruments, and an independent valuation would not be practicable due to the lack of data regarding similar instruments, if any, and the associated potential costs.


EQUITY INSTRUMENTS FOR SERVICES PROVIDED BY OTHER THAN EMPLOYEES


We account for transactions involving goods and services provided by third parties where we issue equity instruments as part of the total consideration using the fair value of the consideration received (i.e., the value of the goods or services) or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable.


In transactions, when the value of the goods and/or services is not readily determinable and (1) the fair value of the equity instruments is more reliably measurable and (2) the counterparty receives equity instruments in full or partial settlement of the transactions, we use the following methodology:


(a)   For transactions where goods have already been delivered or services rendered, the equity instruments are issued on or about the date the performance is complete (and valued on the date of issuance).


(b)   For transactions where the instruments are issued on a fully vested, non-forfeitable basis, the equity instruments are valued on or about the date of the contract.


(c)   For any transactions not meeting the criteria in (a) or (b) above, we re-measure the consideration at each reporting date based on its then current stock value.


IMPAIRMENT OR DISPOSAL OF LONG-LIVED ASSETS


We review our long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If the cost basis of a long-lived asset is greater than the projected future undiscounted net cash flows from such asset (excluding interest), an impairment loss is recognized. Impairment losses are calculated as the difference between the cost basis of an asset and its estimated fair value. We believe that no impairment occurred at or during the three and nine months ended December 31, 2011 and 2010.


BENEFICIAL CONVERSION FEATURE OF CONVERTIBLE NOTES PAYABLE


The convertible feature of certain notes payable provides for a rate of conversion that is below the market value of our common stock. Such feature is normally characterized as a "Beneficial Conversion Feature" ("BCF"). We record the estimated fair value of the BCF, when applicable, in the condensed consolidated financial statements as a discount from the face amount of the notes. Such discounts are accreted to interest expense over the term of the notes using the effective interest method.


REVENUE RECOGNITION


With respect to revenue recognition, we entered into a contract with DARPA as discussed above and have recognized revenue during the three months ended December 31, 2011 of $958,075 under such contract. We adopted the Milestone method of revenue recognition for the DARPA contract under ASC 605-28 “Revenue Recognition – Milestone Method” and we believe we meet the requirements under ASC 605-28 for reporting contract revenue under the Milestone Method for the quarter ended December 31, 2011.


In order to account for this contract, the Company identifies the deliverables included within the contract and evaluates which deliverables represent separate units of accounting based on if certain criteria are met, including whether the delivered element has standalone value to the collaborator. The consideration received is allocated among the separate units of accounting, and the applicable revenue recognition criteria are applied to each of the separate units.


A milestone is an event having all of the following characteristics:


(1) There is substantive uncertainty at the date the arrangement is entered into that the event will be achieved. A vendor’s assessment that it expects to achieve a milestone does not necessarily mean that there is not substantive uncertainty associated with achieving the milestone.


(2) The event can only be achieved based in whole or in part on either: (a) the vendor’s performance; or (b) a specific outcome resulting from the vendor’s performance.


(3) If achieved, the event would result in additional payments being due to the vendor.


A milestone does not include events for which the occurrence is either: (a) contingent solely upon the passage of time; or (b) the result of a counterparty’s performance.


The policy for recognizing deliverable consideration contingent upon achievement of a milestone must be applied consistently to similar deliverables.

The assessment of whether a milestone is substantive is performed at the inception of the arrangement. The consideration earned from the achievement of a milestone must meet all of the following for the milestone to be considered substantive:


(1) The consideration is commensurate with either: (a) the vendor’s performance to achieve the milestone; or (b) the enhancement of the value of the delivered item or items as a result of a specific outcome resulting from the vendor’s performance to achieve the milestone;


(2) The consideration relates solely to past performance; and


(3) The consideration is reasonable relative to all of the deliverables and payment terms (including other potential milestone consideration) within the arrangement.


A milestone is not considered substantive if any portion of the associated milestone consideration relates to the remaining deliverables in the unit of accounting (i.e., it does not relate solely to past performance). To recognize the milestone consideration in its entirety as revenue in the period in which the milestone is achieved, the milestone must be substantive in its entirety. Milestone consideration cannot be bifurcated into substantive and nonsubstantive components. In addition, if a portion of the consideration earned from achieving a milestone may be refunded or adjusted based on future performance, the related milestone is not considered substantive.


See Note 12 for the additional disclosure information required under ASC 605-28.


DERIVATIVE LIABILITIES AND CLASSIFICATION


We evaluate free-standing derivative instruments (or embedded derivatives) to properly classify such instruments within equity or as liabilities in our financial statements. Our policy is to settle instruments indexed to our common shares on a first-in-first-out basis.


The classification of a derivative instrument is reassessed at each balance sheet date. If the classification changes as a result of events during a reporting period, the instrument is reclassified as of the date of the event that caused the reclassification. There is no limit on the number of times a contract may be reclassified.


On April 1, 2009 we adopted new guidance, as codified in Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 815-40, Derivatives and Hedging, Accounting for Derivative Financial Instruments Indexed to, and Potentially Settled in, a Company’s Own Stock (previously EITF 07-5), that requires us to apply a two-step model in determining whether a financial instrument or an embedded feature is indexed to our own stock and thus enables it to qualify for equity classification. We have identified several convertible debt or warrant agreements in which the embedded conversion feature or exercise price contains certain provisions that may result in an adjustment of the conversion or exercise price, which results in the failure of the these instruments to be considered to be indexed to our stock. Accordingly, under this guidance, we are required to record the estimated fair value of these instruments as derivative liabilities (see Note 9).


We re-measure the estimated fair value of derivative liabilities at each reporting period and record changes in fair value in other expense (income) in the current statement of operations.


REGISTRATION PAYMENT ARRANGEMENTS


We account for contingent obligations to make future payments or otherwise transfer consideration under a registration payment arrangement separately from any related financing transaction agreements, and any such contingent obligations are recognized only when it is determined that it is probable that the Company will become obligated for future payments and the amount, or range of amounts, of such future payments can be reasonably estimated (see Note 7).


STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION


Employee stock options and rights to purchase shares under stock participation plans are accounted for under the fair value method. Accordingly, share-based compensation is measured when all granting activities have been completed, generally the grant date, based on the fair value of the award. The exercise price of options is generally equal to the market price of the Company's common stock (defined as the closing price as quoted on the OTCBB) on the date of grant. Compensation cost recognized by the Company includes (a) compensation cost for all equity incentive awards granted prior to, but not yet vested as of April 1, 2006, based on the grant-date fair value estimated in accordance with the original provisions of the then current accounting standards, and (b) compensation cost for all equity incentive awards granted subsequent to April 1, 2006, based on the grant-date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of subsequent accounting standards. We use a Binomial Lattice option pricing model for estimating fair value of options granted (see Note 10).


INCOME TAXES


Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to the difference between the consolidated financial statements and their respective tax basis. Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of (a) temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts reported for income tax purposes, and (b) tax credit carryforwards. We record a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets when, based on our best estimate of taxable income (if any) in the foreseeable future, it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred tax assets may not be realized. At March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2011, we had net deferred tax assets relating primarily to tax net operating loss carryforwards and a 100% valuation allowance on such net deferred tax assets. We had no significant current tax provision for any period presented.


SIGNIFICANT RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS


There were no recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB (including its Emerging Issues Task Force), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, or the Securities and Exchange Commission that in the opinion of management had, or are expected to have a material impact on our present or future consolidated financial statements.